Chapter 3.txt

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Chapter 3.txt
2011-01-02 23:08:30
AP Biology

Chapter 3
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  1. Alcohols, �OH group
    Organic compound having one or more hydroxyl groups that dissolves easily in water; e.g., ethanol.
  2. Amino acid
    A small organic compound with a carboxylic acid group, an amino group, and a characteristic side group (R); monomer of polypeptide chains.
  3. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate. A type of nucleotide that functions as the main energy carrier between reaction sites in cells. Consists of the base adenine, the five-carbon sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups.
  4. Carbohydrate
    Any molecule of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen typically in a 1:2:1 ratio. Main kinds are monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. They serve as structural materials, energy stores, and transportable energy forms.
  5. Coenzymes
    An organic molecule that is a necessary participant in some enzymatic reactions; helps catalysis by donating or accepting electrons or functional groups; e.g., a vitamin, ATP, NAD+.
  6. Condensation reaction
    Type of chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded as a larger molecule; water often forms as a by-product.
  7. Denaturation
    Disruption of hydrogen bonds and other interactions holding a molecule in its three-dimensional shape, which thereby changes. Increases in temperature, shifts in pH, and detergents can cause it.
  8. Disaccharide
    [Gk. di, two, + sakcharon, sugar] A carbohydrate composed of two sugar monomers.
  9. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid. Double-stranded nucleic acid twisted into a helical shape; its base sequence encodes the primary hereditary information for all living organisms and many viruses.
  10. Enzymes
    A type of protein that catalyzes (speeds) a chemical reaction. Some RNAs also show catalytic activity.
  11. Fats
    Type of lipid with one, two, or three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol head.
  12. Fatty acid
    Organic compound having a carboxyl group and a backbone of as many as thirty-six carbon atoms; saturated types have single bonds only; unsaturated types include one or more double covalent bonds.
  13. Functional groups
    An atom or a group of atoms with characteristic properties that is covalently bonded to the carbon backbone of an organic compound.
  14. Glycogen
    Highly branched polysaccharide of glucose monomers; the main storage carbohydrate in animals.
  15. Glycoproteins
    Protein with linear or branched oligosaccharides covalently bonded to it.
  16. Hemoglobin
    [Gk. haima, blood, + L. globus, ball] A hemecontaining protein produced by red blood cells; carries most of the oxygen in blood.
  17. Hydrocarbons
    Organic compound with only hydrogen bonded to its carbon backbone.
  18. Hydrolysis
    [L. hydro, water, + Gk. lysis, loosening] A cleavage reaction; an enzyme splits a molecule, then the components of water (�OH and �H) are attached to the fragments.
  19. Lipids
    One of the nonpolar hydrocarbons; e.g., a fat, oil, wax, sterol, phospholipid, or glycolipid. Cells use as storage forms of energy and building blocks.
  20. Lipoproteins
    A protein complexed with cholesterol, triglycerides, or phospholipids that were absorbed from the small intestine.
  21. Monomers
    Any small molecule that is a repeating subunit in a polymer; e.g., the sugar monomers of starch.
  22. Monosaccharides
    [Gk. monos, alone, single, + sakcharon, sugar] A simple sugar.
  23. Nucleic acids
    Single-stranded or doublestranded molecule of nucleotides joined at phosphate groups; e.g., DNA, RNA.
  24. Nucleotide
    Small organic compound with a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group. Functions as coenzymes or monomers of nucleic acids.
  25. Oligosaccharide
    Short-chain carbohydrate of two or more covalently bonded sugar monomers; e.g., sucrose and other disaccharides.
  26. Organic compounds
    Any carbon-based molecule that also incorporates atoms of hydrogen and, often, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements; e.g., fats, proteins.
  27. Peptide bond
    The chemical bond formed between the carboxyl groups and amino groups of neighboring amino acids, constituting the primary linkage of all protein structures.
  28. Phospholipid
    A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head. The main constituent of cell membranes.
  29. Polymers
    Large molecule of multiple linked monomers.
  30. Polypeptide chain
    Three or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
  31. polysaccharide
    [Gk. polus, many, + sakcharon, sugar] Straight or branched chain of covalently bonded monomers of the same or different kinds of sugars; e.g., cellulose, starch, and glycogen.
  32. proteins
    Organic compound consisting of one or more polypeptide chains. Diverse kinds have structural, functional, and regulatory roles in all organisms.
  33. RNA
    Ribonucleic acid. Any of a class of single-stranded nucleic acids involved in gene transcription and translation; some RNAs show enzyme activity.
  34. sterols
    Any lipid consisting of a rigid backbone of four fused carbon rings.
  35. triglyceride
    A lipid with three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone.
  36. waxes
    A lipid with long-chain fatty acids attached to an alcohol other than glycerol.