Chapter 13.txt

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Anonymous
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57857
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Chapter 13.txt
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2011-01-03 01:24:04
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AP Biology
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Chapter 13
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  1. adenine
    One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotide monomers of DNA or RNA; also refers to a nucleotide having an adenine base component.
  2. bacteriophages
    One of a class of viruses that infects bacteria.
  3. clone
    A genetically identical copy of DNA, a cell, or a multicelled organism.
  4. cytosine
    One of the four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotide monomers of DNA or RNA; also applies to a nucleotide that contains a cysteine base.
  5. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid. Double-stranded nucleic acid twisted into a helical shape; its base sequence encodes the primary hereditary information for all living organisms and many viruses.
  6. DNA ligases
    Type of enzyme that catalyzes the sealing of short stretches of DNA into a continuous strand during replication; also seals strand breaks.
  7. DNA polymerases
    Type of enzyme that catalyzes the addition of free nucleotides to new DNA strands during replication; also proofreads and corrects mismatches.
  8. DNA proofreading mechanisms
    Any enzyme-mediated process that fixes DNA replication errors or strand breaks.
  9. DNA replication
    Process by which a cell duplicates its DNA molecules before it divides into daughter cells.
  10. guanine
    One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotide monomers of DNA or RNA; also may refer to a nucleotide that contains a guanine base.
  11. helicases
    Type of enzyme that catalyzes breaking of hydrogen bonds during DNA replication so the two strands of double helix can unwind from each other.
  12. nucleotides
    Small organic compound with a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group. Functions as coenzymes or monomers of nucleic acids.
  13. purines
    A nucleotide base with a double ring structure; e.g., adenine or guanine.
  14. pyrimidines
    A nucleotide base with a single ring structure; e.g., cytosine, thymine, uracil.
  15. repair enzymes
    Type of enzymes that repairs nucleotide mismatches in a DNA strand.
  16. semiconservative replication
    [Gk. semi´┐Ż, half, + L. conservare, to keep] Mechanism by which a DNA molecule is duplicated. The double helix unzips along its length, exposed bases of each strand are a template upon which a new strand is assembled, then each conserved strand and its new partner wind up in a double helix. Two double helixes, each with a parental strand and new strand of DNA, result.
  17. stem cells
    Self-perpetuating, undifferentiated animal cell. A portion of its daughter cells becomes specialized; e.g., red blood cells from stem cells in bone marrow.
  18. telomeres
    A cap of repetitive DNA sequence on the end of a chromosome. Each nuclear division, enzymes digest a bit of it; cells stop dividing when only a nubbin remains.
  19. thymine
    One of four nitrogencontaining bases in nucleotide monomers of DNA; also applies to a nucleotide with a thymine base component.
  20. x-ray diffraction images
    Film image of xrays scattered by a crystalline sample; the resulting pattern of streaks and dots can be used to calculate the spacing between the atoms in the crystal lattice.

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