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Learn 7
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  1. A cocktail
    is an alcoholic mixed drink that contains two or more ingredients — at least one of the ingredients must be a spirit. Cocktails were originally a mixture of spirits, sugar, water, and bitters.[1] The word has come to mean almost any mixed drink that contains alcohol.[2] A cocktail today usually contains one or more kinds of spirit and one or more mixers, such as soda or fruit juice. Additional ingredients may be ice, sugar, honey, milk, cream, and various herbs.[3]
  2. Distillation
    • is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction.
    • Commercially, distillation has a number of applications. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation
    • and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from
    • seawater. Air is distilled to separate its components—notably oxygen, nitrogen, and argon—for industrial use. Distillation of fermented solutions has been used since ancient times to produce distilled beverages
    • with a higher alcohol content. The premises where distillation is
    • carried out, especially distillation of alcohol, are known as a distillery.
  3. Alcohol by volume
    (abbreviated as abv or ABV) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a percentage of total volume).[1][2][3] The ABV standard is used worldwide.[4]
  4. Beer
    • is the world's most widely consumed[1] and probably the oldest[2][3][4] of alcoholic beverages; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea.[5] It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative,
    • though other flavourings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be
    • included. Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the
    • production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours,[6] and "The Hymn to Ninkasi",
    • a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer
    • and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few
    • literate people.[7][8] Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.
  5. An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits.
    They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries
    have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption.[1]
    In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may
    legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25
    years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations
    set it at 18 years of age.[1]
    The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states.[2][3] Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social events in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction — mainly because of alcohol’s neurological effects.
    Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcohol can be addictive, and the state of addiction to alcohol is known as alcoholism.
  6. An alcoholic beverage contains...
    ...ethanol, commonly known as alcohol.
  7. In some modern and ancient cultures, drug usage is seen as a status symbol. Recreational drugs are seen as status symbols in settings such as at nightclubs and parties.[22] For example, in ancient Egypt, gods were commonly pictured holding hallucinogenic plants.[23]
  8. Psilocybin mushrooms
    • (magic mushrooms,[1] teónanácatl, teotlaquilnanácatl, xochinanácatl) are
    • fungi that contain the psychoactive compounds psilocybin and psilocin.
    • There are multiple colloquial terms for psilocybin mushrooms, the most
    • common being magic mushrooms[1] or shrooms.[2] Biological genera
    • containing psilocybin mushrooms include Agrocybe, Conocybe, Copelandia,
    • Galerina, Gerronema, Gymnopilus, Hypholoma, Inocybe, Mycena, Panaeolus,
    • Pluteus, Psilocybe and Weraroa. There are approximately 190 species of
    • psilocybin mushrooms and most of them fall in the genus Psilocybe.
  9. A psychedelic substance
    • is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and
    • perception. Psychedelics are part of a wider class of psychoactive drugs
    • known as hallucinogens, a class that also includes related substances
    • such as dissociatives and deliriants. Unlike other drugs such as
    • stimulants and opioids
    • which induce familiar states of consciousness, psychedelics tend to
    • bend and twist the mind in ways that result in the experience being
    • qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. The
    • psychedelic experience is often compared to non-ordinary forms of
    • consciousness such as trance, meditation, yoga, and dreaming.
  10. Stimulants
    • (also called psychostimulants[1]) are psychoactive drugs
    • which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical
    • function or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include
    • enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Due to
    • their effects typically having an "up" quality to them, stimulants are
    • also occasionally referred to as "uppers". Depressants
    • or "downers", which decrease mental and/or physical function, are in
    • stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional
    • opposites. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as
    • prescription medicines and as illicit substances of recreational use or
    • abuse.
  11. An opioid
    • is a chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found
    • principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the
    • gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate
    • both the beneficial effects and the side effects of opioids.
    • Opioids are among the worlds oldest known drugs; the use of the opium
    • poppy for its therapeutic benefits predates recorded history. The
    • analgesic
    • (painkiller) effects of opioids are due to decreased perception of
    • pain, decreased reaction to pain as well as increased pain tolerance.
    • The side effects of opioids include sedation, respiratory depression, and constipation.
    • Opioids can cause cough suppression, which can be both an indication
    • for opioid administration or an unintended side effect. Physical
    • dependence can develop with ongoing administration of opioids, leading
    • to a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt discontinuation. Opioids are well
    • known for their ability to produce a feeling of euphoria, motivating
    • some to recreationally use opioids.
    • Although the term opiate is often used as a synonym for opioid, the term
    • opiate is properly limited to only the natural alkaloids found in the
    • resin of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).
  12. Sparkling wine
    • is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it making it fizzy. The carbon dioxide may result from natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the méthode champenoise, in a large tank designed to withstand the pressures involved (as in the Charmat process), or as a result of carbon dioxide injection.
    • Sparkling wine is usually white or rosé but there are many examples of red sparkling wines such as Italian Brachetto and Australian sparkling Shiraz. The sweetness of sparkling wine can range from very dry "brut" styles to sweeter "doux" varieties.[1]
    • The classic example of a sparkling wine is Champagne.
  13. The Martini
    is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth and garnished with an olive.
  14. White Russian Recipe
    Light Cream
    Coffee Liqueur
    Vodka
  15. Long Island Iced Tea Recipe
    Coca Cola
    Gin
    Rum
    Tequila
    Vodka
  16. Brandy
    • (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn—"burnt wine")[1] is a
    • spirit produced by distilling wine, the wine having first been produced
    • by fermenting grapes. Brandy generally contains 35%–60% alcohol by
    • volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink. While some
    • brandies are aged in wooden casks, most are coloured with caramel
    • colouring to imitate the effect of such aging.[citation needed]
  17. Bourbon
    • is a type of American whiskey – a distilled spirit made primarily from
    • corn (maize). The name of the spirit derives from its historical
    • association with an area known as Old Bourbon, around what is now
    • Bourbon County, Kentucky (which, in turn, got its name from the French
    • House of Bourbon royal family). It has been produced since the 18th
    • century. While it may be made anywhere in the United States, it is
    • strongly associated with Kentucky.
  18. Whisky
    • (Scottish English) or whiskey (Hiberno-English) is a type of distilled
    • alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Different grains are
    • used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye,
    • malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). Whisky is aged in wooden casks,
    • made generally of white oak, except that in the United States corn
    • whiskey need not be aged.
    • Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide with many competing
    • denominations of origin and many classes and types. The unifying
    • characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation
    • of grains, distillation, and aging in wood.
  19. Barley
    • is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare.
    • Barley has many uses. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt
    • for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various
    • health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of
    • various cultures, from Scotland to Africa.
  20. In agriculture, fodder
    • is animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed
    • domesticated livestock such as cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens
    • and pigs.
    • Most animal feed is from plants but some is of animal origin. "Fodder"
    • refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut
    • and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves
    • (see forage). It includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted
    • feeds, oils and mixed rations, and also sprouted grains and legume
  21. Malting
    • is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to
    • germinate by soaking in water[1] and are then quickly halted from
    • germinating further by drying with hot air.[2][3][4] Malting grains
    • develops the enzymes that are required to modify the grain's starches
    • into sugars including monosaccharides such as glucose or fructose, and
    • disaccharides such as sucrose or maltose.
    • It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the
    • proteins in the grain into forms which can be utilized by yeast. Malted
    • grain is used to make malt beer, malt whisky, malted shakes, malt
    • vinegar, confections such as Maltesers and Whoppers, and some baked
    • goods, such as malt loaf.
    • Malted barley is often a label-listed ingredient in blended flours
    • typically used for yeast breads, and a form of it specially selected for
    • higher protein is typically used in the manufacture of many common
    • baked goods.[5]
    • The term "malt" refers to several products of the process:
    • the grains to which this process has been applied, for example malted
    • barley;the sugar, heavy in maltose, derived from such grains, such as
    • the baker's malt used in various cereals; ora product based on malted
    • milk, similar to a malted milkshake (i.e., "malts").
    • Whisky or beer made from malted barley or rye is also called malt, as in
    • Alfred Edward Housman's aphorism "malt does more than [John] Milton
    • can, to justify God's ways to Man."
  22. Rum
    • is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane by-products such
    • as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and
    • distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in
    • oak and other barrels.
  23. Horn of Africa


  24. Which mountain range is this?
    Balkans
  25. Jasper Johns. Abstractionist. Jasper Johns, Jr. (born May 15, 1930) is an American contemporary artist who works primarily in painting and printmaking.
  26. Jasper Johns. Abstractionist..
  27. Jasper Johns. Abstractionist.
    • Piet Mondrian. Abstractionist.Pieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈpiːt ˈmɔndriaːn], later [ˈmɔndriɔn]; March 7, 1872 – February 1, 1944), was a Dutch painter.
    • He was an important contributor to the De Stijl art movement and group, which was founded by Theo van Doesburg. He evolved a non-representational form which he termed Neo-Plasticism.
    • This consisted of white ground, upon which was painted a grid of
    • vertical and horizontal black lines and the three primary colors.[1]
    • Between his 1905 painting, The River Amstel, and his 1907 Amaryllis, Mondrian changed the spelling of his signature from Mondriaan to Mondrian.[2]
  28. Wassily Kandinsky. Abstractionist. Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (English pronunciation: /kənˈdɪnski/; Russian: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Канди́нский, Vasilij Vasil'evič Kandinskij; 16 December [O.S. 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter, and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first modern abstract works.[citation needed]
  29. Wassily Kandinsky. Abstractionist.
  30. Edvard Munch. Expressionist.
  31. Vincent van Gogh. Café Terrace at Night. September 1888. Expressionist.
  32. Edvard Munch Madonna. Expressionist.
  33. Pierre-Auguste Renoir. La Moulin de la Galette. Impressionist
  34. Andy Warhol.
  35. Henri Rousseau. Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (May 21, 1844 – September 2, 1910)[1] was a French Post-Impressionist painter in the Naive or Primitive manner.[2][3] He was also known as Le Douanier (the customs officer), a humorous description of his occupation as a tax collector.[1] Ridiculed during his life, he came to be recognized as a self-taught genius whose works are of high artistic quality.[4][5]
    • Fauvism. Henri Matisse (French pronunciation: [ɑ̃ʁi matis]; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter. Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Picasso and Marcel Duchamp,
    • as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary
    • developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of 20th century,
    • responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.[1][2][3][4] Although he was initially labelled a Fauve (wild beast), by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting.[5]
    • His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed
    • in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a
    • leading figure in modern art.[6]
  36. monte saint victoire.

    • Paul Cézanne (French pronunciation: [pɔl seˈzan]; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter
    • whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century
    • conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world
    • of art in the 20th century. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge
    • between late 19th century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. The line attributed to both Matisse and Picasso that Cézanne "is the father of us all" cannot be easily dismissed.
    • Cézanne's work demonstrates a mastery of design, colour, tone,
    • composition and draftsmanship. His often repetitive, sensitive and
    • exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly
    • recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build
    • up to form complex fields, at once both a direct expression of the
    • sensations of the observing eye and an abstraction from observed nature.
    • The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects, a
    • searching gaze and a dogged struggle to deal with the complexity of
    • human visual perception.
    • Paul Cézanne (French pronunciation: [pɔl seˈzan]; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter
    • whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century
    • conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world
    • of art in the 20th century. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge
    • between late 19th century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. The line attributed to both Matisse and Picasso that Cézanne "is the father of us all" cannot be easily dismissed.
    • Cézanne's work demonstrates a mastery of design, colour, tone,
    • composition and draftsmanship. His often repetitive, sensitive and
    • exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly
    • recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build
    • up to form complex fields, at once both a direct expression of the
    • sensations of the observing eye and an abstraction from observed nature.
    • The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects, a
    • searching gaze and a dogged struggle to deal with the complexity of
    • human visual perception.
  37. Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), commonly known as Salvador Dalí (Catalan pronunciation: [səɫβəˈðo dəˈɫi]), was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres.

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