Anatomy

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Author:
boothe13
ID:
57876
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2011-01-16 14:52:33
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Muscles
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Origins & Insertions
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  1. Trapezuis
    • Origin: medial 3rd of superior nuchal line external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, and spinous process of C7-T12 vertebrae
    • Insertion: lateral 3rd of clavicle, acromion process, and spine of scapula
    • Innervation: spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) and cervical nerves C3 and C4 (pain and proprioception)
    • Action: superior fibers elevate, middle fibers retract, and inferior fibers depress scapula; superior and inferior fibers act together in superior rotation of scapula (inferior angle outward)
  2. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Origin: spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae (T7-T12), thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs (9-12)
    • Insertion: floor of intertubecular groove of humerus
    • Innervation: thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)
    • Action: extends, adducts, and IR humerus; raises body toward arms during climbing
  3. Rhomboid Major and Minor
    • Origin: Major: Spinous process of T2-T5 vertebrae (inferior to spine of scapula); Minor: spinous process of C7-T1 (superior to spine of scapula)
    • Insertion: medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle
    • Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
    • Action: retract scapula and rotate inferior angle medially to depress glenoid cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall
  4. Erector Spinae:
    - Iliocostalis (lateral)
    - Longissimus (middle)
    - Spinalis (medial)
    • Origin: iliac crest, sacrum, sacral lumbar spinous process, supraspinous ligament
    • Insertion: iliocostalis: ribs and cervical transverse process; longissimus: between tubercle and angle of rib, transverse process, mastoid process; spinalis: spinous process and skull
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Action: extensor of spine
  5. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Origin: mastoid process
    • Insertion: sternum and medial portion of clavicle
    • Innervation: spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
    • Action: SB towards ipsilateral side and rotates contralateral; acting together flexes the neck and raises sternum and assists in forced inspiration
  6. Levator Scapulae
    • Origin: posterior tubercles of transverse process of C1-C4 vertebrae
    • Insertion: superior part of medial border of scapula
    • Innervation: dorsal scapular (C5) and Cervical nerves (C3-C4)
    • Action: elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula, also SB neck and rotate it ipsilaterally
  7. Scalene
    (Ant, Middle, Post)
    • Origin: transverse process of cervical vertebrae (C2-C7)
    • Insertion: Ant -> 1st rib; Middle -> 1st rib, Post -> 2nd rib
    • Innervation: C3-C8
    • Action: elevates 1st and 2nd rib, SB and rotates cervical spine towards ipsilateral side

  8. Suboccipital Triangle
    -obliquus capitis superior
    -obliquus capitis inferior
    -rectus capitis posterior major
    -rectus capitis posterior minor
    • Origin:
    • -RCPMa:C2 spinous process
    • -RCPMi: C1 posterior tubercle
    • -OCS: C1 Transverse process
    • -OCI: C2 spinous process
    • Insertion:
    • -RCPMa: lateral part of inferior nuchal line
    • -RCPMi: medial part of inferior nuchal line
    • -OCS: occiput
    • -OCI: C1 transverse process
    • Innervation: dorsal ramus of C1 (suboccipital nerve)
    • Action: extends occiput on C1 (OA extension); rotates C1 on C2
  9. Deltoid
    • Origin: lateral 3rd of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula
    • Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • Innervation: axillary nerve (C5 and C6)
    • Action: ant portion-> flexes and IR arm; middle portion-> abducts arm; posterior portion-> extends and ER arm
  10. Supraspinatus
    • Origin: supraspinous fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: superior facet on greater tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: suprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)
    • Action: initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with rotator cuff muscles
  11. Infraspinatus
    • Origin: infraspinatus fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: middle facet on greater tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: suprascapular nerve (C5-C6)
    • Action: ER; help to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula; depress humeral head
  12. Teres Minor
    • Origin: superior part of lateral border of scapula
    • Insertion: inferior facet on greater tunercle on humerus
    • Innervation: axillary nerve (C5-C6)
    • Action: ER; help to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula; depress humeral head
  13. Subscapularis
    • Origin: subscapular fossa
    • Insertion: lesser tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6, C7)
    • Action: IR and adducts humerus; help to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula
  14. Teres Major
    • Origin: dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula
    • Insertion: Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
    • Innervation: lower subscapular nerve (C6-C7)
    • Action: adducts and IR arm
  15. Pectoralis Major
    • Origin: clavicular head -> anterior surface of medial half of clavicle; sternocostal head -> anterior surface of sternum, superior 6 costal cartilages, and aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
    • Insertion: lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
    • Innervation: lateral and medial pectoral nerves, clavicular head (C5-C6), sternocostal head (C7, C8, T1)
    • Action: adducts and IR humerus; draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly; acting alone, clavicular head flexes humerus and sternocostal head extends it from the flexed position
  16. Pectoralis Minor
    • Origin: 3rd-5th ribs near costal cartilages
    • Insertion: medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula
    • Innervation: medial pectoral nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall (protraction and depression of scapula)
  17. Subclavius
    • Origin: junction of 1st rib and its costal cartilage
    • Insertion: inferior surface of middle 1/3 of clavicle
    • Innervation: nerve to subclavius (C5-C6)
    • Action: Protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall; rotates scapula
  18. Serratus Anterior
    • Origin: external surfaces of lateral parts of ribs 1-8
    • Insertion: anterior surface of medial border of scapula
    • Innervation: long thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7)
    • Action: protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall; rotates scapula (inferior angle laterally) = stabilizes
  19. Bicep Brachii
    • Origin: short head -> tip of coracoid process of scapula; long head -> supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
    • Insertion: tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis
    • Innervation: musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6)
    • Action: Supinates forearm, flexes forearm, flexes shoulder
  20. Brachialis
    • Origin: distal half of anterior surface of humerus
    • Insertion: coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna
    • Innervation: musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6)
    • Action: flexes forearm in all positions
  21. Coracobrachialis
    • Origin: tip of coracoid process of scapula
    • Insertion: middle third of medial surface of humerus
    • Innervation: musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6, C7)
    • Action: flexes and adducts arm
  22. Triceps Brachii
    • Origin: long head -> infraglenoid tubercle of scapula; lateral head -> posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove; medial head -> posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove
    • Insertion: proximal end of olecranon of ulna and fascia of forearm
    • Innervation: radial nerve (C6, C7, C8)
    • Action: extends the forearm; it is the chief extensor of forearm and extends the arm
  23. Anconeus
    • Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: lateral surface of olecranon and superior part of posterior surface of ulna
    • Innervation: radial nerve (C7-C8)
    • Action: assists triceps in extending the forearm
  24. Brachioradialis (1st layer)
    • Origin: proximal 2/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Insertion: lateral surface of the distal end of the radius
    • Innervation: radial nerve (C5, C6, C7)
    • Action: flexes forearm w/ thumb up (neutral position)
  25. Pronator Teres (1st layer)
    • Origin: distal supracondylar ridge and medial epicondyle of humerus (humeral/superficial head) and coronoid process of ulna (ulnar/deep head)
    • Insertion: middle of lateral surface of radius
    • Innervation: median nerve (C6-C7)
    • Action: pronates and flexes forearm @ elbow
  26. Flexor Carpi Radialis (1st layer)
    • Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: base of 2nd metacarpal bone
    • Innervation: median nerve (C6-C7)
    • Action: flexes and abducts (radial deviates) hand @ wrist
  27. Palmaris Longus (1st layer)
    • Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: distal 1/2 of the flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
    • Innervation: medial nerve (C7-C8)
    • Action: flexes hand (@ wrist) and tightens palmar aponeurosis; minor contribution (14-20% of people lack this muscle)
  28. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (1st layer)
    • Origin: humeral head -> medial epicondyle of humerus; ulnar head -> olecranon and posterior border of ulna
    • Insertion: pisiform bone, hook of hamate bone, and 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: ulnar nerve (C7-C8)
    • Action: flexes and adducts (ulnar deviation) hand @ wrist
  29. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (2nd layer)
    • Origin: humeroulnar head -> medial epicondyle of humerus, ulnar collateral ligament, and coronoid process of ulna; radius -> superior 1/2 of anterior border of radius
    • Insertion: bodies of middle phalanges of medial 4 digits
    • Innervation: median nerve (C7, C8, T1)
    • Action: flexes PIP joint
  30. Flexor Digitorum Profundus (3rd layer)
    • Origin: proximal 3/4 of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: bases of distal phalanx of medial four digits
    • Innervation: medial part -> ulnar nerve (C8-T1); lateral part -> median nerve (C8-T1) ---> anterior interosseous nerve
    • Action: flexes DIP 2 distal interphalangeal joints of medial 4 digits; assists with flexion of hand
  31. Flexor Pollicis Longus (3rd layer)
    • Origin: anterior surface of radius and adjacent interosseous membrance
    • Insertion: bases of distal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: anterior interosseous nerve from median (C8-T1)
    • Action: flexes phalanx of 1st digit (thumb)
  32. Pronator Quadratus (4th layer)
    • Origin: distal fourth of anterior surface of ulna
    • Insertion: distal fourth of anterior surface of radius
    • Innervation: anterior interosseous nerve from median (C8-T1)
    • Action: pronates forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
  33. Supinator
    • Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral and anular ligaments, supinator fossa, and crest of ulna
    • Insertion: lateral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius
    • Innervation: deep branch of radial nerve (C5-C6)
    • Action: supinates forearm (rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly)
  34. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus (below brachioradialis)
    • Insertion: base of 2nd metacarpal
    • Innervation: radial nerve (C6-C7)
    • Action: extend and abduct (radial deviate) hand at wrist joint
  35. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: base of 3rd metacarpal
    • Innervation: deep branch of radial nerve (C7-C8)
    • Action: extend hand at wrist joint
  36. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna
    • Insertion: base of 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8), the continuation of the deep branch of radial nerve
    • Action: extends and adducts (ulnar deviation) hand at wrist joint
  37. Extensor Digitorum
    • Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: extensor expansions of medial four digits
    • Innervation: posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8), the continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
    • Action: extends medial four digits at metacarpophalangeal joints; extends hand at wrist joint
  38. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: extensor expansion of 5th digit
    • Innervation: posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8), the continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
    • Action: extends 5th digit at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
  39. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: posterior surfaces of ulna, radius and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: base of 1st metacarpal
    • Innervation: posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8), the continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
    • Action: Abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint (snuff box)
  40. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin: posterior surface of radius and interosseous membrance
    • Insertion: base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8), the continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
    • Action: extends proximal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal joint (snuff box)
  41. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: posterior surface of middle third of ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: base of distal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8), the continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
    • Action: extends distal phalanx of thumb at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints (snuff box)
  42. Extensor Indicis
    • Origin: posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: extensor expansion of 2nd digit
    • Innervation: posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8), the continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
    • Action: extends 2nd digit and helps to extend hand
  43. Opponens Digiti Minimi (hypothenar muscles)
    • Origin: hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
    • Insertion: medial border fo 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing digit 5 into opposition with thumb
  44. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis (hypothenar muscles)
    • Origin: hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
    • Insertion: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger (5th digit)
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit
  45. Abductor Digiti Minimi (hypothenar muscles)
    • Origin: pisiform
    • Insertion: medial side of base of phalanx of little finger
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: abducts 5th digit
  46. Adductor Pollicis
    • Origin: oblique head -> bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate, and adjacent carpals; transverse head -> anterior surface of body of 3rd metacarpal
    • Insertion: medial side of bases of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: adducts thumb toward middle digit
  47. Flexor Pollicis Brevis (thenar muscles)
    • Origin: flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
    • Insertion: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: recurrent branch of median nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: flexes thumb
  48. Opponens Pollicis (thenar muscles)
    • Origin: flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
    • Insertion: lateral side of 1st metacarpal
    • Innervation: recurrent branch of median nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: draws 1st metacarpal bone medially to oppose thumb toward center of palm and rotates it medially
  49. Abductor Pollicis Brevis (thenar muscles)
    • Origin: flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
    • Insertion: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: recurrent branch of median nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: abducts thumb and helps oppose it
  50. Palmar Interossei 1-3 (PAD)
    • Origin: palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th, and 5th metacarpals (unipennate muscles)
    • Insertion: extensor expansions of digits and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2,4 and 5
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: adduct digits toward axial line and act with lumbricals to flex MCP joints and extend interphalangeal joints
  51. Dorsal Interossei 1-4 (DAB)
    • Origin: adjacent sides of two metacarpals (bipennate muscles)
    • Insertion: extensor expansions and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2-4
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: abducts digits from axial line and act with lumbricals to flex MCP joints and extend interphalangeal joints
  52. Lumbricals 1 and 2
    • Origin: lateral two tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (unipennate muscles)
    • Insertion: lateral sides of extensor expansions of digits 2-5
    • Innervation: median nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: flexes digits at MCP joints and extend interphalangeal joints
  53. Lumbricals 3 and 4
    • Origin: medial three tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (unipennate muscles)
    • Insertion: lateral sides of extensor expansions of digits 2-5
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1)
    • Action: flexes digits MCP joints and extend interphalangeal joints
  54. Rectus Abdominis
    • Origin: pubic symphysis and pubic crest
    • Insertion: xiphoid processes and the costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
    • Innervation: intercostal nerves from T6-T11, subcostal nerve (T12); T6-T12
    • Action: forward flexion of the trunk, posterior tilting of the pelvis, stabilization of the pelvis and trunk, flattening of the abdomen, supports abdominal viscera, increase intra-abdominal pressure
  55. External Oblique
    • Origin: external surfaces of 5th-12th ribs
    • Insertion: linea alba, pubic tubercle, and anterior half of iliac crest
    • Innervation: thoracoabdominal nerve (inferior 6 thoracic nerves and subcostal nerve)
    • Action: compress and support abdominal viscera and flex and rotate trunk
  56. Internal Oblique
    • Origin: thoracolumbar fascia (TLF), anterior 2/3 of ilial crest, and lateral 1/2 of inguinal ligament
    • Insertion: inferior borders of 10th-12th ribs, linea alba, the pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
    • Innervation: thoracoabdominal (ventral rami of inferior 6 thoracic) and 1st lumbar nerves
    • Action: compress and support abdominal viscera, flex and rotate trunk
  57. Transversus Abdominis
    • Origin: internal surfaces of 7th-12th costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and lateral third of inguinal ligament
    • Insertion: linea alba with aponeurosis of internal obliques, pubic crest, and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
    • Innervation: thoracoabdominal (ventral rami of inferior 6 thoracic) and first lumbar nerves
    • Action: compresses and supports abdominal viscera
  58. Multifidus (lumborum)
    • Origin: posterior sacrum, posterior superior iliac spine, posterior sacroiliac ligament, mammillary processes from L1-L5
    • Insertion: spinous processes of vertebrae 1-4 levels superior to vertebrae of origin
    • Innervation: dorsal rami of lumbar spinal nerves crossed by muscle
    • Action: extends (bilaterally), controls lateral flexion and rotates (contralateral side) the lumbar spine

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