Pod Biomechanics Exam 1

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valarie.dean
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Pod Biomechanics Exam 1
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2011-01-04 23:03:08
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Biomechanics Exam 1
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  1. Subtalar Joint Motion and Axis
    Motion: triplanar, supination and pronation

    Axis: distal-medial-dorsal to proximal-lateral-plantar. 16 deg from sagittal plane, 42 from transverse, and 48 from frontal
  2. 1st Ray Motion and Axis
    Motion: Biplanar and coupled. Dorsiflexion with inversion and plantarflexion with eversion.

    Axis: 45 deg from frontal and 45 from sagittal, parallel to transverse plane.
  3. STJ Effects on 1st Ray
    STJ pronated = increased 1st Ray motion

    STJ supinated = decreased 1st Ray motion
  4. 5th Ray Motion and Axis
    Motion: Triplanar. Pronation and supination.

    Axis: oriented similarly to subtalar joint
  5. Central 3 Rays and IPJs Motion and Axes
    Motion: Single plane, dorsiflexion and plantarflexion

    Axis: Perpendicular to sagittal plane, parallel to front and transverse planes
  6. MTPJs Motion and Axes
    Biaxial - vertical axis (transverse plane, ab and adduction) and horizontal axis (sagittal plane, dorsi and plantarflexion)

    2 separate motions!
  7. MTJ (talo-navicular and calcaneo-cuboidal joints) Motion and Axes
    Biaxial: longitudinal axis and oblique axis.

    Longitudinal axis: perpendicular to frontal plane (75 deg from frontal plane). Inversion and eversion

    Oblique axis: oblique to sagittal and transverse. 8 deg from sag, 15 from transverse. Dorsiflextion w/ abduction and plantarflexion w/adduction
  8. Newton's 1st Law
    Body in motion stays in motion, and body at rest stays at rest, unless acted upon by another force.
  9. Velocity
    vector that has magnitude and direction
  10. Linear movement
    Mass that moves from point A to B with a linear velocity (i.e. walking). Linear force = axial force.
  11. Difference b/w speed and velocity
    Speed = distance/time. No direction.

    velocity = displacement/time with direction.

    displacement = distance
  12. Acceleration
    the rate at which an object changes its velocity.

    a = change in velocity/time

    i.e. going from 30mph to 60 mph is acceleration. or, changing direction also considered accel.
  13. Force (Newton's Second Law)
    F= mass x acceleration
  14. Momentum
    Momentum = mass x velocity

    quantity of motion a mass has.

    has force potential.
  15. Change of momentum
    It takes a certain force over a time period to change the momentum.

    change in momentum = force x time

    How do you minimize force (i.e a punch coming at you w/ momentum?). Increase the time (move your head back).
  16. Velocity, acceleration and momentum are all...?
    Vectors. Have a direction and speed.
  17. Newton's 3rd Law
    When a force is exerted on an object, that object pushes back with an equal and opposite force.

    Ground reactive forces from the earth push back on our feet.
  18. How does pronation and fat cushion of our feet minimize the force of hitting the ground?
    change in momentum = force x time. They increase the time.
  19. Angular momentum
    body of mass rotating around axis to produce linear momentum. Degrees per minute.

    ang. mom = inertia x angular velocity

    inertia = amt. of energy it takes to start or stop an object
  20. Angular acceleration
    same as linear. change in momentum - change in acceleration (bc velocity changes). To produce ang. accel, apply a force called a torque or moment.
  21. Moment
    = force x distance from fulcrum (moment arm)

    if two forces are equal, but one force is applied 2x farther from the fulcrum, it will produce 2x the torque.
  22. Center of Mass
    Point in an object where it has its smallest amount of inertia around any axis that contains that point

    it's easier to rotate object around an axis if that axis lies within its center of mass.
  23. Why does a balance beam help?
    The farther a mass is spread out, the greater its inertia (or ability to resist change in velocity)
  24. Class 1 Lever
    Fulcrum is between the force (effort) and the load (inertia)

    example: tricep with elbow as fulcrum and hand with the load

    intermediate strength
  25. Mechanical Advantage
    Lever mechanical advantage - length of effort arm divided by length of resistance arm
  26. Class 2 Lever
    Strongest. Fulcrum at one end, force (effort) at other end with load in the middle. (wheel barrel, or door on hinge)

    when effort arm is long, it's strong.

    calf is effort, load is body weight and fulcrum is toes.
  27. Class 3 Lever
    Weakest bc moment arm is smaller, but fastest.

    Fulcrum at end, effort in middle, load at other end. i.e. elbow, bicep and load on hand. (bicep attaches to forearm).

    Most joints are Class 3.
  28. Wolfe's Law
    Every change in form or function of a bone is followed by adaptive changes (bone remodeling)
  29. What stabilizes a joint? What de-stabilizes a joint?
    Compression stabilizes bone

    Rotation/angular movements cause instability if excessive or outside normal range (muscle action keeps angulations low and stabilizes joint motion)
  30. Davis Law
    soft tissues (ligaments) will elongate under prolonged tension.

    • elasticity = returns to normal shape, usually with force of short duration.
    • plasticity = doesn't return to shape, long duration force.
  31. Ligamentous laxity
    Born with ligaments of high elastic content (abnormal collagen/elastin ratio)

    Ligaments go through plastic deformation. Pronation in childhood becomes excessive and leads to bone and joint adaptation.
  32. Proprioception
    process by which the body can vary muscle contraction in response to external forces. Specialized structures: golgi tendon bodies, muscle spindle, joint proprioception.
  33. What are the 4 stabilizers of the foot?
    Muscle, bone, ligaments and proprioception
  34. External forces on the foot?

    Internal forces on the foot?
    External: body mass in motion, gravity

    Internal: rotation/angular movement around joint
  35. What are the two types of equilibrium?
    • 1. Static
    • 2. Steady motion (moving at a constant velocity)

    instability occurs when a force displaces the object from its original position (equilibrium)
  36. Balance
    Static Equilibrium

    • Balance is improved when:
    • -center of mass is lower
    • -base of support is wider
    • (crouched low with feet spread apart = most balanced position)
  37. Elastic collision
    Momentum is conserved in the system. The only negligible loss of kinetic energy is in heat and friction. KE is, for the most part, conserved.
  38. Inelastic collision
    Momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is lost to a form outside the system.

    I.e. foot hitting earth. Foot velocity changes (decelerates), earth moves but because of its mass its unperceivable.
  39. Kinetic energy
    the energy a moving body has just because it's moving. Energy is ability to do work.

    KE = 1/2mv^2
  40. Potential Energy
    A body's unrealized potential to do work. Something not in motion has PE, but when it moves it has KE.
  41. Forces on the Foot
    • 1. Body weight
    • -gravity
    • -free falling mass
    • 2. Earth as it reacts to foot
    • -vertical force
    • -horiz. force (friction)
    • 3. Internal forces
    • -tension, compression, rotation
  42. Stress-strain curve of the bone
    Can apply increasing force on a bone, and up to the yield point, it will bounce back (elastic region). Beyond the yield point (plastic region) the bone is deformed/injured.
  43. Highest point of PE in gait
    Middle of single support (one foot on ground, one at highest point in air)
  44. Highest point of KE in gait
    double support
  45. How to reduce stress/strain
    • Decrease body weight
    • Minimize how far center of mass falls
    • Maximize time of applied force to change momentum
    • smooth walking (i.e. limping is less energy efficient
  46. Factors that absorb shock and reduce stress
    fat pad and skin of heel, STJ pronation, MTJ pronation, knee flexion (increases time to minimize force), ankle plantarflexion, phasic muscle contraction
  47. Cavus Foot
    Supinated position. Doesn't pronate, loss of shock absorption.
  48. Anteversion
    abnormal internally rotated femur due to tight soft tissues. treatable.
  49. Retroversion
    externally rotated femur due to tight soft tissues. treatable.
  50. Antetorsion
    lack of normal external twisting of femur. increased angle. leads to internally rotated femur (intoeing). Not very treatable since the problem is the bone.
  51. Retrotorsion
    Too much external rotation of femur. smaller angle. outtoeing. Not very treatable since it's the bone.
  52. Angle of Inclination or Cervicofemoral angle
    Angle of neck to shaft of femur.

    • Increased: coxa valgum/genu varum (bow-legged)
    • Decreased: coxa varum/genu valgum (knock-kneed)

    From birth to adult, decreases from 135-140 to 126-128 degrees
  53. Age ranges for progression of angle of inclination
    • Birth - 2: bowlegged
    • 2 - 4: straight
    • 4 - 7: knock kneed
    • 7 - 12: straight
    • 13 - 18: knock kneed
    • Adult should be straight or slightly knock kneed
  54. Genu recurvatum
    knees are hyperextended. Due to ligamentous laxity. affects girls more. sagittal plane.
  55. Ankle Joint Dorsiflexion
    • Birth - up to 75 degrees.
    • By age 15, decreased to 10 degrees.
  56. Malleolar Torsion
    Knees and hips straight but feet are rotated either out or in. Tibia, like the femur, starts inwardly rotated and needs to rotate externally.

    Could also be caused by position of fibula and tibia to each other (fibia should be slightly posterior to tibia)
  57. Normal development of malleolar torsion
    At birth they are straight. Progressively externally rotate until they are 15 to 18 degrees external. Thus, it's normal for fibula to be posterior to tibia.
  58. Lack of malleolar torsion
    Pigeon-toed/intoed
  59. excess malleolar torsion
    out-toe, duck feet
  60. Pseudo-lack of malleolar torsion
    soft-tissue problem at the KNEE that causes intoeing, even though it looks like an ankle problem
  61. Developmental foot rotation
    In the womb, foot is adducted and inverted. Children are flat footed and everted. Adult should have vertical heel and straight forefoot.
  62. Talus rotations
    torsion twist from 20 degrees to 40 in a valgus direction (lack of twist=forefoot varus, too much twist=forefoot valgus)

    transverse external rotation from 35 to 20 deg (lack of rotation=forefoot adductus, too much=forefoot abductus)
  63. Calcaneus rotations
    twist and rotation from varus to vertical.

    • lack of twist/rotation = inverted/varus
    • excess twist/rotation = everted/valgus
  64. inverse kinematics
    the motion of the body is known, and the forces must be extrapolated from position-time curves
  65. forward kinematics
    adding forces to making something do what u want it to do
  66. Cocheba's definition of Moment
    measures the tendency for a structure to rotate

    tibialis posterior muscle decreases internal rotation of the foot! (answer on test)
  67. Internal Moment
    Tendency of bone to bend

    i.e. stress fractures : no outward physical change, nothing visible. but when it breaks, it becomes an external moment. Test Q!
  68. External Moment
    Results in visible motion (has an outright physical change). Most common form of a moment in kinematics.
  69. Ground reactive force on calcaneus
    If GRF on lateral calcaneus, will cause eversion. If on medial, will cause inversion.

    GRF pushes back with equal and opposite force!
  70. Gait Cycle
    Interval of time from heel strike of one foot to heel strike of same foot. consists of 2 phases: stance and swing.
  71. Stride Length
    the distance covered on one foot during one complete gait cycle
  72. step
    the distance covered on one foot during one-half of the gait cycle
  73. Cadence
    number of steps/minute when a person walks normally
  74. Stance Phase of Gait Cycle
    weightbearing portion of gait cycle. starts at heel strike of one foot to toe-off of opposite foot.

    Periods of stance phase: contact period, midstance period, propulsive period.
  75. Swing Phase of Gait Cycle
    Non-weight bearing portion. Toe off of one foot to heel strike of same foot. 40% of gait cycle.
  76. Contact period of stance phase
    heel strike to forefoot loading (or opposite toe-off)
  77. Midstance period of stance phase
    forefoot loading (or opposite toe-off) to heel lift
  78. Propulsive Period of stance phase
    heel lift to toe-off
  79. Interosseous ligament
    limits inversion and eversion
  80. cervical ligament
    limits inversion
  81. lateral talocalcaneal ligament
    limits inversion
  82. medial talocalcaneal ligament
    limits eversion
  83. Lateral ankle ligaments
    • Anterior talo-fibular
    • Calcaneofibular - limits STJ supination
    • Posterior talo-fibular
  84. Medial ankle ligaments
    • superficial deltoid
    • deep deltoid
  85. Tibiocalcaneal ligament
    strongest portion of superficial deltoid, limits eversion of STJ and ankle
  86. Subtalar Joint 3:1 ratio
    For every degree of sagittal plane motion, there are three degrees of transverse and frontal plane motion
  87. purpose of pronation (STJ motion)
    shock absorption and adaptation to uneven terrain
  88. purpose ot supination (STJ motion)
    Creates rigid lever for propulsion and prepares foot for heel contact

    (foot doesn't propel well from a pronated position)
  89. Open kinetic chain
    non-weight bearing (swing phase), occurs in gait, calcaneus does all the work (moves in all 3 planes), tibia has little influence
  90. closed kinetic chain
    weight bearing (stance phase), occurs in gait, both calcaneus and talus do the work, tibia has great influence

    calcaneus goes back to only moving in frontal plane
  91. STJ in Open kinetic chain
    • Pronation (dorsiflexion, abduction, eversion)
    • Supination (plantarflexion, adduction, imversion)
  92. STJ in closed kinetic chain
    talus does equal and opposite motion as calcaneus. tibia does same transverse plane motion as talus!

    • pronation: calcaneus everts, talus plantarflexes and adducts
    • supination: calcaneus inverts, talus dorsiflexes and abducts
  93. tibia in closed kinetic chain pronation
    internally rotated (because talus is adducted)
  94. tibia in closed kinetic chain supinated
    externally rotated (because talus is abducted)
  95. STJ during contact period
    Heel strike to forefoot loading

    at heel strike, STJ is supinated then undergoes rapid pronation throughout contact period. Neutral position just after heel strike.
  96. STJ during midstance period
    forefoot loading to heel lift

    STJ is slowly supinating, still pronated just before heel lift. Neutral position around heel lift.
  97. STJ during Propulsive Period
    Heel lift to toe off

    STJ is supinated and still supinating even more (a rigid lever)
  98. STJ during swing phase (open kinetic chain)
    • 1st half: STJ pronates
    • 2nd Half: STJ supinates

    Remember in OKP, calcaneus does all the work! In pronation, it everts, abducts and dorsiflexes. In supination, it inverts, adducts and plantarflexes.
  99. STJ Neutral position
    STJ neither pronated nor supinated. Measure non-weight bearing.
  100. Calculating STJ Neutral position
    • Amount of max STJ inversion and max STJ eversion. Then use NP = (total ROM/3) - eversion
    • where ROM = measured calcaneal inversion + measured calcaneal eversion. If negative, NP is everted. If positive, NP is inverted. Normal is 0-2 degrees inverted.

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