Biology

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Author:
kattygirl
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57981
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Biology
Updated:
2011-01-07 19:48:51
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Bio
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For PreComps and Comps.
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  1. What are the definitions of anatomy and physiology?
    • Anatomy- The study of the shape and structure of an organism. (How does it look?)
    • Physiology- The study of the function of a organism's parts. (How does it work?)
  2. What is the definition of observation?
    A skill that involves the senses- sight, hearing, touch, smell, and SOMETIMES taste-to gather information and collect data.
  3. What is the definition of inference?
    An interpretation of an observation that is based on evidence or prior knowledge. (Trying to explain what you have observed.)
  4. What is the sagittal plane?
    The plane that separates the body into left and right.
  5. What is the frontal plane?
    The plane that separates the body into front and back.
  6. What is the transverse plane?
    The plane that divides the body into top and bottom.
  7. What sub-cavities are in the ventral cavity?
    The thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities.
  8. What sub-cavities are in the dorsal cavity?
    The cranial and spinal cavities.
  9. What are the levels of organization in the body from smallest to largest?
    Cells --> Tissue --> Organ --> Organ System --> Organism
  10. What are the different anatomical terms and what do they mean?
    • Anterior/Ventral- front
    • Posterior/Dorsal- back
    • Superior- above
    • Inferior- below
    • Medial- middle/midline
    • Lateral- sides
    • Superficial- near the surface of the body
    • Deep- deep in the body
    • Proximal- toward the torso
    • Distal- away from the torso
  11. What are the functions of the organ systems of the body?
    • Integumentary- protects the underlaying tissue
    • Skeletal- moves your body, supports your body, makes new blood, protects your organs, stores minerals
    • Muscular-moves your bones
    • Cardiovascular-pumps blood through your body
    • Respiratory-absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
    • Reproductive- Male: produces and releases sperm Female: Produces eggs and nourishes and shelters the unborn baby
    • Nervous- receives and sends out electrical messages throughout the body
    • Lymphatic- returns leaked fluids to blood vessels, also helps you get rid of germs that could harm you
    • Digestive- breaks down the food you eat into nutrients that can be absorbed into your body
    • Endocrine- regulates body functions by sending out chemical messages. the ovaries (female) and testes (males) are a part of this system
    • Urinary-removes wastes from the blood and regulates body fluids
  12. What are the four tissues of the body and what are their functions?
    • Epithelial- lines and protects most body surfaces
    • Muscle- moves the bones
    • Connective- protects and insulates body parts
    • Nervous- sends messages throughout the body
  13. What is the definition of homeostasis?
    It is when your body tries to maintain a stable internal environment.
  14. What is a cell?
    The smallest living unit of structure and function (Anatomy and Physiology (A&P))
  15. What is an organelle?
    They are very small structures inside the cell that have specific jobs that keep the cell running.
  16. What's the function (job) of the cell membrane?
    It controls what goes in and out of the cell, its like the gatekeeper.
  17. What's the function (job) of the cytoplasm?
    It allows for parts to move around.
  18. What is cytoplasm?
    It is a liquid that fills the rest of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
  19. What is the function (job) of the nucleus?
    It is in charge of everything that goes on inside the cell. It is like the brain in our body.
  20. What is the function (job) of the DNA?
    The DNA carries instructions for the organelles to do their jobs and for making new cells.
  21. What is the main difference between plant cells and animal cells?
    Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts.
  22. What is diffusion?
    It is the movement of materials from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  23. What are the five functions of the skeletal system?
    • 1.Movement
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Support
    • 4. Storage
    • 5. New Blood (Hemopoiesis)
  24. What is osteoporosis?
    It is when osteoclasts (bone breaker cells) destroy bone faster than osteoblasts (bone builder cells) can build them and your bones become frail and weak.
  25. How can someone get osteoporosis?
    This happens if you don't get enough calcium in your childhood.
  26. Who is more likely to get osteoporosis?
    Women
  27. How do you prevent getting osteoporosis?
    You get lots of calcium, exercise, get plenty of Vitamin D.
  28. What are the four types of bones?
    • Flat
    • Short
    • Long
    • Irregular
  29. What are the six types of joints?
    • 1. Pivot
    • 2. Gliding
    • 3. Ball-and-Socket
    • 4. Fixed
    • 5. Hinge
    • 6. Saddle
  30. How do muscles work as opposites?
    One muscle pulls on one side, and the other pulls on the other side.
  31. Where is the deltoid? (Deltoid Triangle)
    shoulder
  32. Where are the Pectorals? (Pecs)
    Chest
  33. Where is the Latissimus Dorsi? (Dorsal (Fin))
    mid-lower back/ upper sides
  34. Where is the External Oblique? (outside of stomach)
    lower side
  35. Where is the Rectus Abdominus? (abs)
    stomach
  36. Where is the bicep? (two muscles)
    upper arm
  37. Where is the tricep? (three muscles)
    under arm
  38. Where are the quadriceps? (four muscles)
    thigh (anterior)
  39. Where is the satorius? (side kick)
    hip/thigh
  40. Where is the gastrocnemius? (get cramps)
    calf
  41. Where is the achillis tendon? (Achelles)
    ankle area above heel
  42. Where is the gluteus maximus? (maximus-big)
    bottom/buttocks
  43. Where is the bicep femoris? (back of femur)
    back thigh
  44. Where is the trapezius? (trapezoid)
    back neck

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