The most important idea in this lesson is that behavior analysts regard anything that a person does as a form of__________.
Behavior analysts label a definition that tells you exactly what
behavior to observe a "behavioral __________.
A behavioral definition tells you exactly what
behavior to _________.
Mom told Jim what she meant by eating everything on your plate. She
meant that he would not leave anything that could be picked up with a fork. Her
statement of what she meant is called a(n)____________ .
When students first learn the term "behavioral definition" they sometimes start adding an "al" to the name of the field to make it "behavioral analysis." That is
wrong! The name of the field is ________ analysis.
The field that studies the effect of environmental events on behavior is
A statement that describes exactly what behavior to observe is called
Because the statement "eye contact occurs whenever Tommy looks
directly in your eyes" tells you exactly what behavior to observe when
looking for eye contact, behavior analysts call it a(n) ____________.
Sometimes students get lazy and refer to a behavioral definition as
simply a "definition." But that doesn't say whether it's a dictionary
definition, a qualitative definition or a semantic definition! Therefore you
should always refer to a statement that specifies exactly what to observe with
the full name: ________ ________!
Dr. South might define "understanding" as being able to fill in the key words left out of a definition. Because this statement specifies what behavior she has decided to call "understanding" it is a(n) ______ ________.
Dr. Barnes found out what Mrs. Jones wanted from Mr. Jones when she spoke of "affection." She wanted to be hugged more often. "Being hugged more often" is a behavioral definition because it specifies exactly what behavior Dr. Barnes would have to __________ to find out if Mr. Jones were showing more affection.
Because you are more likely to clearly talk about the same behavior, an
advantage of using a behavioral definition is ________ communication.
Because it helps you consistently observe the same behavior, another advantage of a behavioral definition is that you have more consistent ________.
Disruptive behavior includes whispering in class, leaving your desk, or hitting other children". This tells you what behavior to look for if you are looking for "disruptive behavior." Behavior analysts call a sentence of this kind a(n) _______ ________.
Non-behavior analysts often try to learn about a particular behavior by asking people to remember facts about that behavior. Because they are based on memory, behavior analysts call a person's answers about behavior "self-reports." Questionnaires and interviews are examples of the approach called self- __________observations
Non-behavior analysts rely heavily on people reporting their memory of
behavior. This approach is called _______ -report observations.
Reliance on the memory of behavior after it has occurred is characteristic of the approach called ________ observation.
Self-reports usually lack detail, they can be wrong, and they often
can't be checked. I summarize these three problems by saying that the problem
with self-reports is that they are _______ (accurate, inaccurate) or of unknown accuracy.
Observations that rely on memory of the behavior are usually inaccurate or of unknown accuracy. I refer to this as the problem with ________ observations.
The problem with self-reports is that they are usually ________ or of unknown accuracy.
Direct observation has two features: the observer must personally ______ (or hear) the behavior and they must immediately record it.
Behavior analysts solve the problem with self-reports by having observers personally see the behavior and immediately record what they saw. Behavior analysts call this approach "direct _________.
Direct observation involves seeing and recording: the observer must personally see (or hear) the behavior and they must immediately________ the behavior.
Behavior analysts call the approach to observation in which an observer personally sees the behavior and immediately records it _______ observation.
Many students confuse "record" and "report." Be sure to define direct observation as the use of a trained observer who personally sees and immediately ______ their observation.
Students sometimes refer to the approach of personally seeing and immediately recording an observation simply as "observation." Doing so doesn't specify whether the approach is direct observation or self-report observation. You should be specific by always referring to personally seeing and immediately recording an observation as " ________ observation."
Behavior analysts almost always use the approach called _______ observation with the behaviors of interest.
Behavior analysts make one exception to the requirement that an observer
personally see or hear the behavior. They permit the observer to personally see
the result of a behavior if it proves that the behavior occurred. For example,
washing a window produces a clean window. If an observer sees a clean window that proves that it was washed. If an observer sees the result of washing a window and immediately records it, behavior analysts call the approach ______ observation.
Suppose Mary observes how often her son plays with other children. If
she immediately writes down her observations, then she is using the approach
called _______ observation.
Students sometimes think that any observation by a person of their own
behavior must be a self-report observation. You will miss many exam questions
if you think that! If a person observes their own behavior and immediately
records it, they are using the _______ observation approach.
Behavior analysts ask a person to directly observe their own behavior by
personally seeing and immediately recording it. They call this approach
"direct observation." If they let the person write their observations
from memory, then they would call this the _________ observation
The first tactic in using the Behavioral Strategy is to specify the
problem in terms of what behavior to observe. To use the term you learned in
this lesson, the first tactic is to develop a(n) _______ _______ of the
The science that studies environmental events that modify what a person
does is called _______
The Principle of Direct Observation is using
trained observers for the _______ ________ of behavior.
A behavioral definition clearly states what behavior to_________.
Behavior analysts call everything that a person does_________
If you do not observe a behavior but do observe its result, can this be
a direct observation: ________(no, yes).
Behavior analysts view private events like "thinking" simply
as a form of _______.
In summary, behavior analysts study everything that a person
Behavior refers to activities that are _______, _______ or _________, or
obvious, subtle or internal, orprivate.
Let me put that point another way: behavior does not refer just to obvious or subtle activities but also to activities that are or _______ or ________.
internal or private.
The label for a statement that specifies exactly what to observe is a ________
definition; the name of the science that studies environmental events that
change behavior is a ________ analysis
Behavioral definitions have two advantages. First, when people are talking
about a behavioral problem, using a behavioral definition leads to ________ communication. Second, when an observer is observing a behavior over a long period of time, using a behavioral definition leads to more consistent _______.
Direct observation has two features: an observer personally sees the behavior and immediately _______ it.
Students sometimes confuse direct observation and behavioral definition. A statement specifying what to observe is called a(n) ________ ________ personally seeing and immediately recording observations is called a(n) ___________ _______.
behavioral definition direct observation
You benefit in two ways by talking about specifically defined behaviors.
Your communication is_______ and you increase the consistency of your
When an observer personally sees a behavior and immediately records it, direct __________ _______ analysts call the approach observation. When an observer relies on memory behavior analysts call the approach _____ -______ observation.
observation behavior self- report
Behavior analysts call a statement of exactly what behavior to observe
a(n) _______ _______ ; they call personally seeing and immediately
recording their observations: ______ _______
behavioral definition direct observation
The label for statements that specify exactly what to observe is a _______definition; the name of the science that studies environmental events that change behavior is a _______ ______