CFI Psych Quiz 2
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What is ESP
Extrasensory perception. A group of experiences that involve perceiving or sending information (images) outside normal sensory processes or channels.
What is a threshold?
Refers to the point above which a stimulus is perceived and below which it is not perceived. Also determines when we first become aware of a stimulus.
What is "pica"?
A behavorial disorder, often seen in individuals with mental retardation, that involves eating inedible objects or unhealthy substances. This can result in serious physical problems, including lead poisoning, intestinal blockage, and parasites.
What is negative punishment?
Removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response. This removal decreases the chances that the response will recur.
What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Having strong beliefs about changing some behavior and then acting, unknowingly, to change that behavior.
What was the contribution of Gestalt psychologists?
Believe that our brains follow a set of rules that specify how individual elements are to be organized into a meaningful pattern, or perception.
What are addictions?
A behavioral pattern of drug abuse that is marked by an overwhelming and compulsive desire to obtain and use the drug; even after stopping, the person has a stong tendency to relapse and begin using the drug again.
What is shaping?
A procedure in which an experimenter successivley reinforces behaviors that lead up to or approximate the desire behavior.
What are night terrors?
Occur during stage 3 or 4 (delta sleep), are frightening experiences that often start with a piercing scream, follwed by sudden waking in a fearful state with rapid breathing and increased heart rate. However, the next morning, the child has no memory of the experience. 3-7% children have them.
What do we mean by repair theory?
Suggests that activites during the day deplete key factors in our brain or body that are replenished or repaired by sleep.
How does nicotine affect you?
A stimulant that triggers the brain's reward/pleasure center to produce good feelings. In low doeses, it improves attention, concentration, and short-term memory. Regular use of nicotien causes addiction and dependency, and stopping leads to withdrawal symptoms.
What is REM sleep?
Makes up 20% of your sleep time. Stands for Rapid Eye Movement sleepg b ecause your eyes move rapidly back and forth behind closed lids. The brain waves have high frequency and low amplitude and love very similar to beta waves, which occur when you are wide awake and alert. During this time your body is physically aroused, but all your voluntary muscles are paralyzed. Highly associated with dreaming.
What is sleep apnea?
Repeated periods during sleep when a person stops breathing for 10 seconds or longer. The person may repeatedly stop breathing, momentarily wake up, resume breathing, and return to sleep. Repeated awakenings during the night result in insomnia and leave the person exhausted during the day but not knowing the cause of the tiredness.
How does hypnosis work?
It is a procedure in which a researcher, clinician, or hypnotist suggests that a person will expereince changes sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
What does dependency mean?
Refers to a change in the nervous system so taht a person now needs to take the drug to prevent the occurence of painful withdrawal symptoms.
Be able to explain the stages of sleep and what happens in each one. Also be able to share the reason sleep is so important in our lives.
The stages of sleep refer to distinctive changes in the electrical activity of the brain and accompanying physiological responses of the body that occur as you pass through different phases of sleep.
Stage 1 sleep: Transistion from wakefulness to sleep and lasts 1-7 minutes. In it, you gradually lost responsiveness to stimuli and experience drifting thoughts and images. Stage 1 is marked by the presence of theta waves, which are lower in amplitude and lower in frequency (4-7 cycels per second) than alpha waves.
Stage 2 Sleep: Marks the beginning of waht wwe know as sleep, since subjects who are awakened in stage 2 report having been asleep. EEG tracings show high-frequency bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles.
Stage 4 Sleep: Also called slow wave or delta sleep, is characterized by waves of very hight amplitude and very low frequency (less than 4 cycles per second) called delta waves. Stage 4 is often considered the deepest stage of sleep because it is the most difficult from which to be awakened. During stage 4, heart rate, respirations, temperature, and blood flow to the brain are reduced, and there is a marked secretion of GH (growth hormone), which controls levels of metabolism, physical growth, and brain development.
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