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- or statute law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set
- down by a legislature (as opposed to regulatory law promulgated by the
- executive branch or common law of the judiciary).
- Statutes may originate with national, state legislatures or local
- municipalities. Statutes of lower jurisdictions are subordinate to the
- law of higher.
- of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the diameter of
- the barrel. Gauge is determined from the weight of a solid sphere of
- lead that will fit the bore of the firearm, and is expressed as the
- multiplicative inverse of the sphere's weight as a fraction of a pound
- (e.g., a 1⁄12th
- pound ball fits a 12-gauge bore). Thus there are twelve 12-gauge balls
- per pound (etc.). The term is related to the measurement of cannon,
- which were also measured by the weight of their iron round shot; an 8
- pounder would fire an 8 lb (3.6 kg) spherical cast iron ball and had a
- bore diameter of about 91 mm (3.6 in).
The 20-gauge shotgun
- is a type of smoothbore shotgun
- that is smaller in caliber (.615) than a 12 gauge(.729). It takes 20
- lead balls of the diameter of a 20-gauge shotgun bore to equal 1 pound,
- while it only takes 12 lead balls of the diameter of a 12-gauge shotgun
- bore to equal the same amount. A 20-gauge shotgun is sometimes
- considered more suitable for hunting certain types of game, because it damages less meat,which
- makes it suitable for most game birds. The 20 gauge is also well suited
- for turkey hunting because you are only aiming for the neck and head.
- is the process of making helical grooves in the barrel of a gun or
- firearm, which imparts a spin to a projectile around its long axis. This
- spin serves to gyroscopically stabilize the projectile, improving its
- aerodynamic stability and accuracy.
- Rifling is described by its twist rate, which indicates the distance
- the bullet must travel to complete one full revolution, such as "1 turn
- in 10 inches" (1:10 inches), or "1 turn in 25.40 cm" (1:25.4 cm). A
- shorter distance indicates a "faster" twist, meaning that for a given
- velocity the projectile will be rotating at a higher spin rate.
- ( pronunciation (help·info), sometimes called rumba shakers) are a
- native instrument of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Colombia, Guatemala and several
- nations of the Caribbean and Latin America. They are simple percussion
- instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried
- calabash or gourd shell (cuia "cue-ya") or coconut shell filled with
- seeds or dried beans. They may also be made of leather, wood, or
- (gôrd, grd, grd)n.1. Any of several trailing or climbing plants
- related to the pumpkin, squash, and cucumber and bearing fruits with a
- hard rind.2. a. The fruit of such a plant, often of irregular and
- unusual shape.b. The dried and hollowed-out shell of one of these
- fruits, often used as a drinking utensil.
- is a device which projects either single or multiple projectiles at
- high velocity through rapid, confined burning of a propellant. This
- process of rapid burning is technically known as deflagration. In older
- firearms, the propellant was typically black powder or cordite, but
- modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern
- firearms (with the notable exception of smoothbore firearms) have rifled
- barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
is a muzzle or breech-loaded projectile-firing weapon.
In firearms, the chamber
- is that portion of the barrel or firing cylinder in which the cartridge
- is inserted prior to being fired. Rifles and pistols generally have a
- single chamber in their barrels, while revolvers have multiple chambers
- in their cylinders and no chamber in their barrel.
- is an indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities, short
- ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories. It is typically
- muzzle-loading and has a barrel length less than 15 times its caliber.
A breech-loading weapon
- is a firearm (a rifle, a gun etc.) in which the cartridge or shell is
- inserted or loaded at the rear of the barrel, or the opposite of
The Gatling gun
- is one of the best known early rapid-fire weapons and a forerunner of
- the modern machine gun. It is well known for its use by the Union forces
- during the American Civil War in the 1860s, which was the first time it
- was employed in combat. Later it was also famously used in the assault
- on San Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War.
- is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling")
- cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called
- "lands," which make contact with the projectile (for small arms usage,
- called a bullet),
- imparting spin around an axis corresponding to the orientation of the
- weapon. When the projectile leaves the barrel, the spin averages out
- curve from imperfections improving accuracy and prevents tumbling which
- improves range, in the same way that a properly thrown American football
- or rugby ball behaves. The word "rifle" originally referred to the
- grooving, and a rifle was called a "rifled gun." Rifles are used in
- warfare, hunting and shooting sports.
- is a muzzle-loaded, smooth bore long gun, fired from the shoulder.
- Muskets were designed for use by infantry. A soldier armed with a musket
- had the designation musketman or musketeer.
An assault rifle
- is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a
- detachable magazine. Assault rifles are the standard
- infantry weapons in most modern armies. Assault rifles are categorized
- in between light machine guns, which are intended more for sustained
- automatic fire in a light support role, and submachine guns, which fire a
- pistol cartridge rather than a rifle cartridge.
- Examples of assault rifles include the Kalashnikov family (by far the
- most common), M16 rifle, G36, FN F2000, and the Steyr AUG.
The AK-47 was first adopted in 1949 by the Soviet Army. It fires the 7.62x39mm M43 round.
was first introduced into service in 1964 with the United States Air Force. It fires the high velocity 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge.
The main weapon used by British soldiers in the trenches was the bolt-action rifle. 15 rounds could be fired in a minute and a person 1,400 metres away could be killed.
Gases of WW1
- German army were the first to use chlorine gas at the battle of Ypres
- in 1915. Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and chest
- pains. Death is painful
- - you suffocate! The problem with chlorine gas is that the weather must
- be right. If the wind is in the wrong direction it could end up killing
- your own troops rather than the enemy.
- gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was fired into the trenches in
- shells. It is colourless and takes 12 hours to take effect. Effects
- include: blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external
- bleeding. Death can take up to 5 weeks.
The Zeppelin, also known as blimp, was an airship that was used during the early part of the war in bombing raids by the Germans. They carried machine guns and bombs. However, they were abandoned because they were easy to shoot out of the sky.
were used by submarines. The Germans used torpedoes to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain. WW1.
A submachine gun
- (SMG) is an automatic carbine, designed to fire pistol cartridges.
- It combines the automatic fire of a machine gun with the cartridge of a
- pistol. An assault rifle, in contrast, uses an intermediate-power
- cartridge with more power than a pistol but less than a standard rifle
- or battle rifle.
A blue-collar worker
- is a member of the working class who typically performs manual
- labor and earns an hourly wage. Blue-collar workers are distinguished
- from those in the service sector and from white-collar workers, whose
- jobs are not considered manual labor.
- Blue-collar work may be skilled or unskilled, and may involve
- manufacturing, mining, building and construction trades, mechanical
- work, maintenance,
- repair and operations maintenance or technical installations. The
- white-collar worker, by contrast, performs non-manual labor often in an
- office; and the service industry worker performs labor involving
- customer interaction, entertainment, retail and outside sales, and the
A white-collar worker
- refers to a salaried professional or an educated worker who
- performs semi-professional office, administrative, and sales
- coordination tasks, as opposed to a blue-collar worker, whose job
- requires manual labor. "White-collar work" is an informal term, defined
- in contrast to "blue-collar work" Formerly a minority in the agrarian and early industrial societies, white-collar workers have become a majority in industrialized countries.
- Industrial and occupational change during the twentieth century created
- disproportionately more desk jobs, and reduced the number of employees
- doing manual work in factories.
A pink-collar worker
- is employed in a job that is traditionally considered to be
- women's work. The term arose to distinguish these female-oriented jobs
- from the blue-collar worker, a worker in manual labor, and the
- white-collar worker,
- a professional or educated worker in largely office positions.
- Pink-collar jobs usually pay a significantly smaller amount of money
- than blue-collar or white-collar jobs.
A green-collar worker
is a worker who is employed in the environmental sectors of the economy.
Random-access memory (RAM)
is a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order (that is, at random). "Random" refers to the idea that any piece of data can be returned in a constant time, regardless of its physical location and whether it is related to the previous piece of data.The word "RAM" is often associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where the information is lost after the power is switched off. Many other types of memory are RAM as well, including most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash.
Read-only memory (ROM)
is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates).In its strictest sense, ROM refers only to mask ROM (the oldest type of solid state ROM), which is fabricated with the desired data permanently stored in it, and thus can never be modified. However, more modern types such as EPROM and flash EEPROM can be erased and re-programmed multiple times; they are still described as "read-only memory"(ROM) because the reprogramming process is generally infrequent, comparatively slow, and often does not permit random access writes to individual memory locations. Despite the simplicity of mask ROM, economies of scale and field-programmability often make reprogrammable technologies more flexible and inexpensive, so mask ROM is rarely used in new products as of 2007.
is a general term for the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer system, in the form ofcomputer hardware.
What most people think of as a computer can actually be divided into two parts.
The first part, computer hardware, does all of the physical work computers are known for. The second part, computer software, tells the hardware what to do and how to do it. If you were to think of a computer as a living being, then the hardware would be the body that does things like seeing with eyes, lifting objects, and filling the lungs with air; the software would be the intelligence, interpreting the images that come through the eyes, telling the arms how to lift objects, and forcing the body to fill the lungs with air.
is a binary digit, the smallest increment of data on a computer. A bit can hold only one of two values: 0 or 1, corresponding to the electrical values of off or on, respectively.
Because bits are so small, you rarely work with information one bit at a time. Bits are usually assembled into a group of eight to form a byte
A kilobyte (KB) is
1,024 bytes, not one thousand bytes as might be expected, because computers use binary (base two) math, instead of a decimal (base ten) system.
Computer memory can refer to many types of memory within a computer, but, typically, it refers to random access memory(RAM). It is physically found on computer chips that are inserted onto the computer’s motherboard. RAM is electronic, rather than mechanical; that is, it does not have moving parts and therefore data access to it is very fast. Modern computers often have somewhere between 256 MB (megabytes) and 2 GB (gigabytes) of RAM, although there are, of course, computers with more or less RAM. RAM is also volatile, meaning that it gets lost when the computer is switched o
Computer storage and memory is often measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB). A medium-sized novel contains about 1MB of information. 1MB is 1,024 kilobytes, or 1,048,576 (1024x1024) bytes, not one million bytes.Similarly, one 1GB is 1,024MB, or 1,073,741,824 (1024x1024x1024) bytes. A terabyte (TB) is 1,024GB; 1TB is about the same amount of information as all of the books in a large library, or roughly 1,610 CDs worth of data. A petabyte (PB) is 1,024TB. Indiana University is now building storage systems capable of holding petabytes of data. An exabyte (EB) is 1,024PB. A zettabyte (ZB) is 1,024EB. Finally, a yottabyte (YB) is 1,024ZB.
If you’re in the market for a new computer, it’s necessary to understand the function of a CPU. Also known as the Central Processing Unit or processor, the CPU is essentially the “brains” of your computer. Without the CPU, you wouldn’t be able to play games, type research papers, or surf the Internet. Your computer would basically be a very expensive paperweight.Sometimes people mistakenly believe the case or chassis of a computer is the CPU. However, a CPU is an internal component of the computer. You can’t see it from the outside of the system; you’d have to peek inside and remove both the CPU heatsinkand fan to get a good look.
The primary function of the BIOS
is to load and start an operating system. When the PC starts up, the first job for the BIOS is to initialize and identify system devices such as the video display card, keyboard and mouse, hard disk, CD/DVD drive and other hardware. The BIOS then locates software held on a peripheral device (designated as a 'boot device'), such as a hard disk or a CD, and loads and executes that software, giving it control of the PC. This process is known as booting, or booting up, which is short for bootstrapping.BIOS software is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip built into the system on the mother board. The BIOS software is specifically designed to work with the particular type of system in question, including having a knowledge of the workings of various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system. In modern computer systems, the BIOS chip's contents can be rewritten allowing BIOS software to be upgraded.