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refers to the illusion that lights are actually stationary seem to be moving. This illusory movement, which today is called apparent motion, is created by flashing closely positioned stationary lights at regular intervals.
What is an illusion?
is a perception experience in which you perceive an image as being so strangely distored that, in reality, it cannot and does not exist. An illusion by created by manipulating the perceptual cues so that your brain can no longer correctly interpret space, size, and depth cues.
What is virtual reality?
refers to a perceptual experience of being inside an object, moving through an environment, or carrying out some action that is created or simulated by computer.
What does it mean when we have "insight"?
A mental process marked by the sudden and unexpected solution to a problem: a phenomenon often called the "ah-ha" experience.
What is "positive" punishment?
refers to presenting an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus after a responce. The aversive stimulus decreases the chances that the response will occur.
What is a cognitive map?
is a mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features.
What is seasonal affective disorder?
is a pattern of depression symptoms, such as loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities. Depressed feelings cycle with the seasons, typically beginning in fall or winter and going away in spring, when days are longer and sunnier. Along with depression are lethargy, exessive sleepiness, overeating, weight gain, and craving for carbohydrates.
What is narcolepsy?
is a chronic disorder that is marked by excessive sleepiness, usually in the form of sleep attacks or short periods of sleep throughout the day. The sleep attacks are accompanied by breif periods of REM sleep and loss of muslce control (cataplexy), which may be triggered by big emotional changes.
What do we mean by "dependency"?
refers to a change in the nervous system so that a person now needs to take a drug to prevent the occurrence of painful withdrawl symptoms.
What is a stimulant?
including cocaine, amphetamines, caffiene, and nicotine, increase activity of the central nervous system and result in heightened alertness, arousal, euphoria, and decreased appetite. Dose for dose, cocaine and amphetamines are considered powerful stimulants because they produce a strong effect with a small does; caffeine and nicotine are considered mild stimulants.
What are hallucinogens?
are psychoactive drugs that can produce strange and unusual perceptual, sensory, and cognitive experiences, which the person sees or hears but knows that they are not occuring in reality. Such nonreality-based experiences are called hallucinations.
What are psychoactive drugs?
are chemicals that affect our nervous systems and, as a result, may alter conciousness and awareness, influence how we sense and perceive things, and modify our moods, feelings, emotions, and thoughts. Psychoactive drugs are both licit (legal)- coffee, alcohol, and tobacco- and illcit (illegal)- marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and LSD.
What is circadian rhythm?
refers to biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses within a time period of 24 hours (about one day).
What does "tolerance" mean?
means that after a person uses a drug repeatedly over a period of time, the original dose of the drug no longer produces the desired effect, so that a person must take increasingly larger doses of the drug to achieve the same behavioral effect.
How does "light therapy" work?
the use of bright artificial light to reset circadian clocks and to combat the insomnia and drowsiness that plague shift workers and jet-lag sufferers. It also helps people with sleeping disorders in which the body fails to stay in time with the external environment.
How do you think we should approach the social and personal problems of substance abuse?
- 1. Admit the problem
- 2. Enter a program
- 3. Get Therapy
- 4. Stay Sober
Be able to explain the differences between positive and negative punishment.
- refers to presenting aversive (unplesent) stimulus after a response. This decreases the chance of the response happening again. Ex. Student who punches a stranger in the face will get a shock ever time they do it so they associate shock with this bad behavior.
- Negative Punishment- refers to removing a reinforcing stimulus (a child''s allowance) after a responce.
- Ex. A child yells at her mother and in responce her mother takes away her televison privileges.