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Appeasing the wrath of God by payment of penalty and cleansing the people from sin.
- 1. Appease wrath by blood
- 2. Cleanse people from sin
- 3. Mercy seat on the alter
Substitution--"in our place"
Vicarious--"for our benefit"
Demons are personal, evil, supernatural spirits and Satan is their leader.
Angels are personal, holy, supernatureal spirits.
Destroying the authority of the powers of darkness.
Demonization of Believers
- 1.Demons are hostile to the things of God
- 2. DAT
- 3. Believers do not need to fall prey
- 4. Believers no longer under the authority of demons
- Col 1:13-14 Col. 2:13-15 Acts 26:18
- Acts 5:3 1 Pet. 5:8-9 James 4:7
??How can a believer be controlled if demons cannot be inside of a believer?? (1 Jn. 5:18)
Nature of the Atonement
- 1. Penal-Substitution is the heart of the atonement
- 2. Other aspects are important to have a full understanding
- Penal 1 Cor. 15:3-4 Isa. 53:4-6, 10-12
- Rom 8:3 Heb 9:7
- 2 Cor 5:21 1 Pet 2:24
- Isa. 53:4-6 Heb 9:28
- ?? Isn't it divine child abuse??
- John 10:17-18, 30
Extent/Intent of the Atonement
"The atonement of Christ paid for the sins of the whole world, but the individual must appropriate that payment through faith."
- 2 Peter 2:1 1 Jn. 2:2 1 Jn. 4:10 1 Tim 2:4-6 1 Tim 4:10 Heb 2:9
- Acts 17:30
- ??If the price has been paid for all, how can any be punished for sin??
- Difference between provision and application.
- Nothing can be added to the propitiatory work, but it is a possibility for all.
Three trajectories of the Atonement
1. Triumph--To the powers (Ransom, Triumph)
2. Subjective--To humanity (Expiation, Example)
3. Objective--To God (Propitiation, Substitution)
1. The penalty for sin must be paid. In the cross God's law was satisfied by Christ's life, and God's justice was satisfied by His bearing sin's penalty in His death-as our substitute.
3. Directed toward God
1. Sin violates God's honor and He must receive satisfaction.
3. Directored toward God
1. Jesus repents for us enabling us to do the same
2. Campbell Forsyth
3. Directed to God then humans
1. Christ's death shows the terribleness of sin and the awefulness of punishment in a context of love and forgiveness so people will be deterred from sin and drawn to good.
3. Directed toward Divine Providence
Moral Influence Theory
1. Christ's example is the motivation for us to do good. It grips our hearts and minds.
2. Abelard Schuller Liberals
3. Directed toward human Actions & Attitudes
1. Christ's life and death serve as an example of how we are to live.
3. Directed toward human Actions and Attitudes
1. God enters humanity to rekindle the divine life
2. Eastern Orthodoxy
3. Directed toward human nature
Triumph (Christos Victor) Theory
1. Christ defeats Satan through the cross and frees people in bondage to Satan. (Not a price to Satan)
2. Luther Gustav Aulen
3. Directed toward the Powers
1. Satan owns us and God paid a ransom price (Jesus) to Satan. (Deceived Satan into thinking he had won)
3. Directed toward the Powers
Rediscovering the Scandal of the Cross
It is against God's wrath and penal-substitution
Journal of the Evangelical Theology Society
1. Nature and Extent of the Atonement in Lutheran Theology (universal atonement & limited election)
2. Nature and Extent of the Atonement in Wesleyan Theology (Universal Atonement & Faith)
3. A case for definite atonement (limited atonement and limited election)
The Cross of Christ--Stott
- The self-substitution of God
- How can holy God comes to terms with unholy man?
- (Works from OT to Chirst)
- The salvation of sinners
- As illustrated by propitiation, redemption, justification, & reconciliation
- The revelation of God
- The love of God that seems imcompatible with the prevailing injustices of this world
(The heart of the Gospel)
How propitiation is at the heart of the gospel.
w/o propitiation there is no gospel
Biblical propitiation is different that the pagan understanding of propitiation.
Office--a function or duty assigned to someone, and performed for the benefit of another.
1. Prophet--Proclaims the Word of God to the people
2. Priest--Represents the people to God
3. King--The annointed King that rules and protects
Powers of Darkness (Truth Encounter)
Clinton E. Arnold
1. Describes how Satan rules this world. How he holds humanity in slavery apart from God.
2. Describes how we are to respond to these powers
Areas/principles of consensus among evangelicals from different theological backgrounds
The Message of the Cross
- Exposition of Rom 3:21-26
- Addresses Justification (Source, need, nature, receiving, & glory)
- Exposition of Col 2: 8-15
- Addresses the victory on the cross (hostile foreces enslaved and Christ delievers)