Initial urine travels to blank first, then to the loop of henle.
Proximal convoluted tubule
What takes place in the loop of henle?
re-absorption of Salt and Water
Urine travels from the loop of henle to?
Distal convoluted tubule
the Distal convoluted tubule's job is what?
permits excretion of concentrated urine by actively secreting potassium & hydrogen ions
Where is Bowman's capsule found?
around the glomerulus
Is blood pressure higher in Bowman's capsule or Glomerulus?
What 2 things do not pass through the Bowman's capsule (unless there is something wrong)?
Protein and RBC's
The amount of fluid re-absorbed back into the body (tubular blood) in influenced by 2 hormones...they are???
Antidiuretic and aldosterone
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is secreted by what gland?
Posterior pituitary gland
Aldosterone is secreted by what gland?
About how long does it take to cleanse all the blood in the body?
Ph of blood should be between what?
if Ph of blood is lower than 7.35 then it is considered:
if Ph of blood is higher than 7.5 then it is considered:
too alkaline (base)
What is Erythropoietin?
substance produced in the kidney that stimulates rate of RBC production
What is the correlation between Renal failure and Anemia?
Kidneys control RBC production (by producing erythropoietin) so if kidney function starts to fail then so does RBC production resulting in decreased amount of RBC-anemia
What is Renal agenisis?
Only 1 kidney develops it is also larger than normal due to compensatory hypertrophy
supernumerary kidney is what?
presence of 3rd kidney
supernumerary kidneys and ureters?
can have it's own separate ureter or can have a branch attaching to one of the ureters from one of the kidneys that are supposed to be there.
does a supernumerary kidney function normal?
yes...but tends to get infections easier so it may be removed due to this complication
What is a hypoplastic kidney?
a normal functioning kidney that is smaller than what is should be
What is an Atrophic kidney?
Small but not normal functioning kidney-the calyces are enlarged due the parenchyma's small size
What is compensatory hypertrophy?
acquired condition that develops when 1 kidney is forced to perform function normally carried out by 2 kidneys
Compensatory hypertrophy is caused by:
Cell size (not number of cells)
Compensatory hypertrophy is most common in which age groups?
Children (chances diminish in adulthood)
Compensatory hypertrophy is associated with?
renal agenesis & hypoplastic kidney
Malrotated kidney is what?
Normal functioning kidney that is in a unique orientation (rotation of some sort)
What is an ectopic kidney?
Abnormally positioned kidney (it is not within it's normal parameters of T12-L3)
Types of ectopic kidneys
Pelvic (kidney is found in true pelvis) & Intrathoracic (kidney is found above diaphragm)
Which type of Ectopic kidney is more common?
How can you distinguish ectopic kidney from nephroptosis?
By the length of the ureter. If there is a long ureter and the kidney is not where it is supposed to be then it is a nephroptosis (it has fallen from where it was). If the kidney has a short ureter attached to it then it originally was located in the pelvis (it didn't fall so if is ectopic)
Define "horseshoe" kidney.
Both kidneys are malrotated & the lower poles are joined by either band of renal parenchyma or connective tissue
In "horseshoe" kidney the ureters exit where?
Anteriorly over the lower poles (instead of medially)
In "horseshoe" kidney, the lower poles point:
What is a Crossed Ectopy?
Both kidneys lie on same side of body and are usually fused.
What is complete fusion of the kidney?
There is No resemblance to renal structure. It is a single irregular mass.
Complete fusion is AKA:
Disk, cake, lump, doughnut (can be S,C,L,J shapes)
In a complete fusion is the kidney still able to function?
Hom many ureters enter the bladder when the kidneys are completely fused?
Can complete fused kidneys be found within the pelvis?
Out of "horseshoe" and complete fusion-which is more common?
What is an Ureterocele?
Cyst-like dilation of distal ureter proximal to the ureterocesical orifice (ureter insertion into bladder)
Ureterocele's appear as -
"spring-onion" sign or "cobra" sign
Ureterocele's are a result from what?
stenosis of ureterovesical orifice
Ectopic Ureterocele's are found in what age group?
Almose exclusively in Infants & Children
In US how does a ureterocele appear?
as a round-cystlike structure within the bladder.
Children with ureteral duplication have how much of a chance of having associated ureteroceles?