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US v EC knight 1895
- held manu to be an inersate activity, but rrs went byond htat, so therefore they were subject to fed authority.
- against the sugar trust
Northern securities company
A giant conglomerate of railroads that had a monopoly over the Great Northern and Northern Pacific lines; President Theodore Roosevelt ordered the company broken up in 1902, and it was dissolved by the Supreme Court in 1904.
anthracite coal strike of 1902
workers struck for more pay and fewer hours, the mine owners closed the mines, roosevelt threatened to take over the mines, and the strike ended w/ 9hr day and wage increase.
swift and company v US 1905
b/c both livestock and meat products of packers moved w/ interstate commerce, teh sc said both were subject to fed reg.
why was the bureau of corporations created?
to monitor the act of interstate corps
Act passed by Congress in 1903, making it illegal for railroads to take as well as to give secret rebates to their favorite customers.
hepburn act of 1906
gave the ICC power to set max freight rates.
what was a closed shop?
Hiring requirement that all workers in a business must be union members.
meat inspection act 1906
Passed in 1906 largely in reaction to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the law set strict standards of cleanliness in the meatpacking industry.
pure food and drug act
Passed in 1906, the first law to regulate manufacturing of food and medicines; prohibited dangerous additives and inaccurate labeling.
- first scientific foresters,
- appointed by Roosevelt in 1881 aschief of the new Division of Forestry in the Dept of Agriculture;
- worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation,
- was fired in 1910 by President Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land in what came to be known as the Ballinger-Pinchot affair.
- hand-picked to carry out roosevelts policies in the White House;
- elected president in 1909 but was cast in a conservative role at a time when progressive sentiment was riding high in the country.
to administer a large new program designed to bring water to arid west states.
- tafts image as a progressive was ruined.
- pinochet was fired in 1910 by Pres Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land in what came to be known as the Ballinger-Pinchot affair.
us steel suit
taft announced an anti trust suit agaist it which roosevelt feared would cause a business panic.
- Platform of the Progressive party and slogan of former president Theodore Roosevelt in the presidential campaign of 1912;
- stressed government activism, including regulation of trusts, conservation, and recall of state court decisions that had nullified progressive programs.
- Act passed in 1910 that empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission
- for the first time to initiate rate changes, extended regulation to telephone and telegraph companies,
- and set up a Commerce Court to expedite appeals from the ICC rulings.
Academic and Progressive Democrat who was elected President of the United States in 1912 and again in 1916; his first term was concerned with trust-busting, tariff reform, and social justice issues, but his second term was caught up in World War I and his efforts on behalf of the Versailles Treaty.
wilson influenced by louis brandeis and new freedom
the belief that the fed gov should restore the co mpetition among sm econ units rather than by reulating monopolies.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
- Created when former president Theodore Roosevelt broke away from the Republican party to run for president again in 1912;
- the party supported progressive reforms
- similar to the Democrats but stopped short of seeking to eliminate trusts.
why was the election of 1912 significant?
- it was a high water mark for progressivism
- the first to feature primaries
- brought dems bac into nat'l power
- brought southerns back into nat'l and internat'l affairs
- the bull moose progressies weakened the progressive wing
Tariff of 1913 which, in addition to lowering and even eliminating some tariffs, included provisions for the first federal income tax, made legal the same year by the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment.
federal reserve act 1913
Glass-Owen Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created a Federal Reserve System of regional banks and a Federal Reserve Board to stabilize the economy by regulating the supply of currency and controlling credit.
federal trade commission act
Established the Federal Trade Commission in 1914 to enforce existing antitrust laws that prohibited business combinations in restraint of trade.
claton anti trust act
- Act passed in 1914,
- outlawed such practices as price discrimination (charging different customers different prices for the same goods), "tying" agreements that limited the right of dealers to handle the products of competing manufacturers, interlocking directorates connecting corporations with a capital of more than $1 million (or banks with more than $5 million), and corporations' acquisition of stock in competing corporations.
la follette seamen's act
Important piece of social-justice legislation that strengthened shipboard safety requirements, reduced the power of captains, set minimum food standards, and required regular wage payments.
Progressive social-justice champion who became the first Jewish member of the Supreme Court in 1916.
federal farm loan act
Enacted in 1916 that set up twelve Federal Land Banks, under the control of a Federal Farm Loan Board, that offered farmers loans of five to forty years' duration at low interest rates.
federal highways act
Act of 1916 that provided dollar-matching contributions to states with highway departments that met certain federal standards, a sharp departure from Jacksonian opposition to internal improvements at federal expense.
smith-lever act of 1914
granted aid for farm demostration agents under the supervision of land grant colleges
the smith hughes act of 1917
extended ag and mech edu to high schols an through grants in aid.
keating owen child labor act
Act signed by President Wilson in 1916 that excluded from interstate commerce goods manufactured by children under fourteen; later ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the ground that regulation of interstate commerce could not extend to the conditions of labor.
adamson act 1916
Act of 1916 that required an eight-hour workday for railroad workers, with time and a half for overtime, and appointed a commission to study the problem of working conditions in the railroad industry.