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  1. 3 Objectives of first aid
    Save life, prevent further injury, prevent infection
  2. Methods of controlling bleeding
    • 1. direct pressure
    • 2. elevation
    • 3.pressure points
    • 4. tourniquet (as a last resort)
  3. Example of a pressure point
    place where main artery to the injured part lies near the skin surface and over a bone

    • -Jaw
    • -neck
    • -inner upper arm
    • -wrist
    • -knee
    • -ankle
    • -groin
  4. Symptoms and treatment for shock
    Symptoms: vacant or lackluster eyes, shallow or irregular breathing, cold, pale skin, nausea, weak or absent pulse

    Treatment:lay victim down feet elevated 6-12 inches, maintain body heat, calm victim if conscious.
  5. Burns
    • First degree: mildest, redness, warmth, tenderness, mild pain
    • 2nd degree: red and blistered skin, severe pain
    • third degree: destroyed tissue, skin and bone in severe cases. Severe pain may be absent due to nerve endings being distroyed.
  6. Heat exhaustion
    • Symptoms: cool, moist, clammy skin.pupils diolated, normal or subnormal body temp
    • Treatment: move victim to cool area, apply wet cool cloths do not allow victim to become chilled
    • 1tsp salt to 1 liter cool water
    • transport to medical facility
  7. Heat Stroke
    Symptoms: hot/dry skin, uneven pupil dilation, weak rapid pulse

    • Treatment: reduce heat with cool water/wet cloths/cold packs. move victim to cool area. Maintain open airway
    • On back shoulders raised slightly cold packs around neck/shoulders/ankles/groin
  8. Difference between Open and Closed Fracture
    Open(compound): open wound in skin or tissue. bone may be protruding thru skin

    Closed (Simple):entirely internal, bone broken but no break in skin
  9. Electric shock

    Personal rescue

    • turn off switch
    • use a dry broom, handle, branch, pole, oar, or other non conducting object to remove wire from victim
  10. Electrick shock

    • artifictial ventilation
    • check pulse if absent begin CPR
    • get victim to medical facility
  11. Methods for clearing an obstructed airway
    • Clear mouth of foreign object
    • arms around waist, grab wrist thimb side against abdomen above navel below ribcage
    • 4 quick upward thrust (american heart)
    • 5 quick upward thrust (red cross)
  12. Hypothermia
    • Victim apears pale and unconsious
    • breathing slow and shallow, pulse faint and undetectable, arm/legs stiff

    wrap in blankets try to bring body temp to normal take to medical facility
  13. Superficial frostbite
    Ice crystals forming in upper skin layers after exposure to temp of 32 degrees or lower
  14. Deep Frostbite
    Ice crystals forming in deeper tissues after exposure to a temp of 32 degrees or lower

    • Get victim indoors, rewarm area w/warm water or hot water bottles never rub frostbite area
    • seek medical attention
Card Set
First aid
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