NTs

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Anonymous
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58511
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NTs
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2011-01-07 00:42:28
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NTs
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  1. Acetylcholine Functional Properties
    • Used by motor neuronsin spinal cord - NMJ for voluntary movement : excitatory effect
    • Used by ANS
  2. Acetylcholine Biosynthesis
    • Choline + Acetyl‐CoA -->ACh + Coenzyme A
    • Enzyme: Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)
    • Limiting step: free choline concentration
    • Release from vesicles viadepol --> Ca dependent exocytosis
  3. Acetylcholine Degredation
    At synaptic cleftby AChE
  4. Acetylcholine Receptors
    • Nicotinic: ligand-gated ionchannels in NMJ, autonomic ganglia & some CNS neurons
    • agonist = nicotine; antagonist =curare; targeted in MG

    • Muscarinic: localized in smooth muscle, heart, glands, brain
    • agonist = muscarin; antagonist =atropine; activation is coupled to G-proteins

    • Neuronal-type R: autonomic ganglia
    • antagonist =hexamethonium (ganglion block)
  5. Acetylcholine Notes
    • ACh release inhibited by botulinumtoxin & stimulated by black widow spider venom
    • Lambert-Eaton affects Ca channels & prevents ACh release
    • Physostigmine is a drug that inhibits AChE to keep ACh in cleft; treat MG
  6. Dopamine (catecholamine) Functional Properities
    Located in substantianigra, VTA, & hypothalamus
  7. Dopamine (catecholamine) Biosynthesis
    • L-Tyrosine --> (via TH, BH4) L-DOPA --> (via AAAD, VitB6) Dopamine
    • Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is rate limiting enzy
  8. Dopamine (catecholamine) Degredation
    • COMT
    • MAO-B
  9. Dopamine (catecholamine) Receptors
    • G-protein coupled
    • D1 & D5 activate cAMP(excitatory)
    • D2 & D3, D4 inactivate cAMP(inhibitory)
  10. Dopamine (catecholamine) Notes
    • Used in Parkinson’s & Schizophrenia Tx
    • Drug of abuse
  11. Norepinephrine (catecholamine) Functional Properties
    Located in locus cereleus & brainstem
  12. Norepinephrine (catecholamine) Biosynthesis
    • Dopamine --> NE
    • Enzyme: DBH
  13. Norepinephrine (catecholamine) Degredation
    MAO-A
  14. Norepinephrine (catecholamine) Receptors
    GPCR
  15. Norepinephrine (catecholamine) Notes
    Amphetamine blocks reuptake of dopamine & NE
  16. Epinephrine/Adrenaline (catecholamine) Functional Properities
    Located in locus cereleus & brainstem
  17. Epinephrine/Adrenaline (catecholamine) Biosynthesis
    Dopamine --> (via DBH) NE --> (via SAM) Epi
  18. Epinephrine/Adrenaline (catecholamine) Degredation
    MAO-A
  19. Epinephrine/Adrenaline (catecholamine) Receptors
    GPCR
  20. Serotonin/ 5HT Functional Properties
    Located in raphe nuclei
  21. Serotonin/ 5HT Biosynthesis
    Tryptophan --> (via tryptophan hydroxylase & BH4) 5-hydroxytryptophan --> (via AAAD) Serotonin (5HT)
  22. Serotonin/ 5HT Degredation
    MAO-A
  23. Serotonin/ 5HT Receptors
    • Cation permeable
    • agonist = sumatriptan
    • antagonist = ondansetron
  24. Serotonin/ 5HT Notes
    • Mood control, sleep, pain, temp.
    • Precursor for melatonin
    • Implicated in depression, anxiety, migraines
    • Activation induces vomiting
  25. Histamine Functional Properities
    • Diamine NT w/ neurons located in tuberomamillary nucleus of hypothalamus
    • projects diffusely
    • arousal
  26. Histamine Biosynthesis
    L-Histadine --> (via HDC) Histamine
  27. Histamine Degradation
    Histamine methyltransferase (HMT)
  28. Histamine Receptors
    • H3 receptors are agonist for treating eating disorders & pain
    • H1 receptor antagonists can treat allergies, cross BBB --> cause drowsiness
  29. Histamine Notes
    Arousal, pain threshold, gut secretion, allergic rxn
  30. ATP, Adenosine Functional Properities
    • Purinergic NT in the brain
    • ATP is converted to adenosine
    • Adenosine produces vasodilation
  31. ATP, Adenosine Receptors
    • G-protein coupled receptors
    • A1 are inhibitory in CNS; antagonized by caffiene
    • A2A antagonizes the effect of dopamine D2 receptors
    • A2A & A2B --> vasodilation
  32. ATP, Adenosine Notes
    Lesh-Nyhan syndrome is caused by mutations in purine salvage pathway HGPRT

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