Holocene Africa

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Holocene Africa
2011-01-07 09:19:27

Adapted from 'The Human Past' ed. Scarre 2005 Thames & Hudson
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  1. What were the Asiatic migrants who settled in the eastern Nile delta known as?
    Hyksos (p.376)
  2. The beginning of farming in the lower Nile region...
    ...occurred rapidly, and may have been based on plants and animals introduced from Western Africa (P.362)
  3. State 3 facts about the 'Bantu expansion'.
    It began in the grassfields of Cameroon.

    It probably began in the 2nd millenium BC.

    It involved many small and complex migrations (P.366)
  4. Give 3 facts about pharoahs/rulers during Old Kingdom times in Egypt.
    The pharoah was associated with Osiris, the god of the dead and afterlife.

    Rulers were typically despotic.

    Pharoahs mediated between the gods and people, who believed that kings communicated with the gods and joined them after death (P.373)
  5. State 3 facts about pottery in Africa.
    It appeared as early as the 9th millenium BC.

    it was first used in the central and southern Sahara.

    It indicates subsistence intensification, enabling the cooking of otherwise inedible foods (P.357)
  6. When was the First Intermediate Period?
    It lasted from around 2125 to 1975 BC (P.374)
  7. How early do southern African rock paintings date to?
    As early as 26,000 years ago (P.356)
  8. State 3 facts about the trend towards economic intensification in Africa.
    It occurred as early as about 18,000 - 17,000 years ago in southern Egypt.

    It involved many types of animal and plant foods.

    It is seen in technologies with backed bladelets and grindstones (P.356)
  9. Give 3 key facts about the writing system in ancient Egypt.
    It began even earlier than in Mesopotamia.

    It predated political unification.

    It was crucial to the emergence of the pharaonic state (P.372)
  10. Give 3 material-related facts about the Nok people of Nigeria.
    They were an iron-using Africa society.

    They created unusual life-size terracotta statues.

    They are hypothesised to be excellent woodcarvers (P.365)
  11. What did Egypt's Late Period begin with?
    The conquest and reunification of Egypt by a Nubian king (P.377)
  12. When was West African urbanisation set in motion?
    In the late 2nd & early 1st millenia BC (P.384)
  13. Which indigenous wild animal became a locally domesticated species in Africa?
    Cattle (P.361)
  14. What is Naqada?
    It is an important Predynastic Egyptian site, and an important culture which showed growing complexity in Predynastic Egypt (P.371)
  15. Give 3 characteristics of the Old Kingdom.
    Economic prosperity, political stability, and central organisation around the pharoah (P.373)
  16. Over the course of the Egyptian state's existence...
    ...it underwent three periods of virtual collapse (P.372)
  17. Give 3 facts about southern African hunter-gatherers of the early Holocene.
    They were modern humans speaking Khoisan languages.

    They showed continuity with foraging people of southern Africa in recent times.

    They used bows, arrows, digging-sticks, bark trays, leather bags, and clothing (P.355)
  18. What stimulated the growth of a Nubian city called Kerma?
    Nubian contact with Egypt during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods (P.380)
  19. What is Hierakonpolis?
    It is the site where the Narmer Palette was found (P.372)
  20. Small, steep-sided pyramids with hieroglyphic inscriptions characterise...
    ...the Meroitic state (P.381)
  21. What are Matola, Chifumbaze, and Kwale?
    Ceramic styles in central and southern Africa (P.358)
  22. According to the author (in Scarre), what had happened by the late 1st millenium AD?
    Many urban centres and state systems had appeared in the West African savanna, and towns and cities were flourishing along the Indian Ocean coast (P.384)
  23. In general, what characterised the Middle Kingdom?
    General stability, with rule by less despotic pharoahs (P.376)
  24. Give 3 geographical facts about Africa.
    It has depressions below sea level to mountains over 5000m high.

    It has some of the world's highest temperatures, as well as areas that freeze.

    The rainfall level varies from over 4000mm in a year to virtually nothing (P.351)
  25. Why did the first African farming develop?
    Out of the intensification of indigenous hunter-gatherer strategies (P.360)
  26. Give 2 facts about the governing system of the Old Kingdom.
    It included a well-organised system of taxation.

    It included a host of government officials, workmen, artisans, architects, and scribes (P.373)
  27. The Egyptian state lasted for some ---- years.
    3000 years (P.372)
  28. Give 3 reasons why the power of the pharoahs weakened.
    Subordinates were rewarded with grants of royal estates, eventually depleting the ruler's own holdings.

    Land and estates no longer reverted to the crown when an official's term expired.

    The power of high officials in the priesthood increased (P.374)
  29. Ancient Egyptian towns and cities appear to have developed with a variety of functions, including...
    ...administrative centres, cult centres, and craft production centres
  30. Give 3 facts about the state of Aksum.
    Aksum took over the role of the Meroitic state in the 4th century AD.

    During some periods it controlled portions of Arabia.

    It was one of the first states in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion (P.382)
  31. Who was Djoser?
    He was an important ruler during the Early Dynastic Period, and had the Step Pyramid at Saqqara built (P.373)
  32. In New Kingdom Egypt...
    ...a series of powerful pharoahs extended control into Southwest Asia and Nubia.

    The army and priesthood grew increasingly powerful.

    Many temples and tombs were constructed.
  33. What was the first main use of iron in Africa?
    For ceremonial, decorative, and high-value artifacts (P.365)
  34. After the rapid spread of iron-using farmers south of the equator...
    ...stone-using hunter-gatherers remained in East, central, and South Africa.

    Remaining foragers were affected by the changes that had taken place across Africa (P.358)
  35. Give 3 facts about Predynastic political centres.
    They grew powerful out of competition with one another.

    They were led by a few elites with more wealth and political power than others.

    They sometimes had a mystical sense of identity (P.372)