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During the 13th century BC, why were the Mycenaean citadels either destroyed or abandoned?
Internal unrest and siege warfare, indicated by enhanced fortifications and defended underground cisterns (P.483)
Bronze metallurgy spread rapidly throughout Europe, but...
...only in the Aegean did state societies emerge in the Bronze Age (P.477)
Name 3 feats of Roman engineering.
Aqueducts, roads, and heated baths (P.508)
Give 3 facts about the Etruscan's independent city-states.
Twelve independent city-states formed an Etruscan league.
They were often located on well fortified hilltops.
They sometimes had an expansionist policy, creating tension with Greek colonies (P.491)
Name 3 things the Hellenistic world system led to.
It facilitated trade, intellectual exchange, and personal travel.
It led to profound developments in literature, philosophy, medicine, science, religion, and warfare.
It created a shared communicative culture based on Greek language, styles, and practices (P.501)
Where did Greek city-states establish colonies?
Sicily & southern Italy, the south of France, and the North African coast (P.488)
The people we call the Phoenicians originated in what is today...
During Rome's earliest regal period, many of its famous urban features were founded, such as...
...the Capitolium temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno, & Minerva, the Forum Romanum, and the Cloaca Maxima (P.505)
How large is Rome's urban population estimated to have approached?
1 million (P.508)
Give 3 facts about the site of Masada.
It was the location of the First Jewish Revolt.
It lies on a high plateau.
It has proven controversial, with some archaeological interpretations supporting, and others disputing, historic accounts (P.513)
What is the most famous Phoenician colony?
What did the typical Minoan palace contain?
A large, open-air central court, spaces for entertainment & ritual performance, and painted frescoes (P.480)
What did the Mediterranean diet often include?
Grains, olives & grapes, sheep & goat, and fish (P.495)
By the 8th century BC where were Phoenician colonies established?
Spain, North Africa, and Siciliy (P.490)
What did most Greek city-states have?
An acropolis, an agora, and several stoas (P.498)
Why does the Mediterranean not always receive attention in archaeological textbooks?
The basic difficulty of defining the Mediterranean world.
Some of its cultures are so famous that others are overshadowed.
It was long the domain only of conservative classical archaeologists who focused mainly on the art and architecture of large sites (P.473)
Carthage and its western empire...
...may have practiced child sacrifice.
Exported carpets, dyes, jewellery, timber, and hides all over the Mediterranean world (P.503)
Name one main characteristic of the Bronze Age.
The further development of metallurgy to create the alloy bronze (P.476)
State 3 facts about the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC.
It marked the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.
It was fought between Octavian, heir of Julius Caesar, and a rival general, Mark Antony, together with Cleopatra.
It led to Rome's Imperial Era, when the victorious Octavian (Augustus) made himself emperor, and eventually, a god (P.506)
Where did Alexander the Great's empire stretch?
From India to Turkey, and from Iraq to Macedon (P.500)
How advanced were other societies at the first establishment of Rome?
Several groups similar to the Romans, such as the Samnites, lived in the vicinity.
The neighbouring Etruscans were already a complex urban society (P.491)
Briefly sum up the Mediterranean climate.
The Mediterranean region generally experiences wet winters and dry summers (P.473)
The socio-political stratification of Myceneaen society...
...is visible in its mortuary architecture and monumental residences (P.483)
Give some examples of religious imagery in Minoan Crete.
Double axes & "horns of consecration", figurines of bare-breasted women grasping snakes, and representations of bulls and of bull-leaping (P.480)
What was the Roman rulers' view on religion?
They didn't care which gods were worshipped, as long as the emperor was worshipped as a god before others (P.514)
The label 'Minoan' for the Cretan Bronze Age...
...was inspired by the legendary King Minos, and coined by Arthur Evans (P.477)
In the Roman empire, Christianity...
...was made the official religion by Constantine in AD 312.
Was initially problematic due to Christian refusal to acknowledge the emperor as a god.
Was used to add an additional level of control and authority to the workings of the empire (P.515)
Give 3 facts about the First Palace period on Crete.
It saw the emergence of Knossos, Mallia, and Phaistos as palace complexes.
It lasted from c. 2000 to c. 1700 BC.
It was ended by destructive earthquakes (P.480)
What was an important trend in the Archaic period in Greece?
The development of the Greek 'polis' (P.486)
In early Minoan cemeteries,, what did some burials include?
Copper daggers & sealstones (P.478)
Despite the construction of aqueducts, and urban legislation about fire fighting and waste disposal...
...for many residents Rome was an unhealthy, difficult place to live (P.508)
At the end of the Second Palace period on Crete...
...all but one of the palaces were destroyed. Knossos survived, but was inhabitated by a new administration.
The Linear B script replaced earlier writing on the island (P.480)
Why was Athens especially rich and luxurious?
Because of its control of silver & marble quarries (P.498)
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