Embalming I

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Embalming I
2011-01-07 11:13:54
Embalming Exam

Embalming Study Review
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  1. Define decomposition:
    the state of being decomposed; decaythe act or process of decomposing
  2. Define rigor mortis:
    this post mortem stiffening of muscles by natural process
  3. What is endrogenous invasion of microoganisms/bacterial translocation?
    is the movement of microorganisms from one area of the body to another
  4. List the (4) causes of bacterial translocation:
    • 1. natural motility of the organisms (am)
    • 2. circulation or hypostasis (am & pm)
    • 3. gravitation or hypostasis (am & pm)
    • 4. improper use of the trocar (pm)
  5. Define imbibition:
    the ability of cells to draw moisture from the surrounding areas
  6. Define sludge:
    elements of blood that stick together other then clots
  7. Define coagulation:
    is a complex process by which blood forms clots
  8. Define agglutination:
    the formed elements of the blood that stick together
  9. The pH of the living body:
    7.4 is normal and 7. is neutral
  10. The pH of a decomposing body:
    7.5 or more
  11. Primary flaccidity consist of:
    relaxation of the muscles immediately after death
  12. Secondary flaccidity consist of:
    flaccidity that occurs after the onset of rigor mortis
  13. ATP/chemical adenosine triphosphate:
    it causes muscle proteins to lock together
  14. The minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for rigor mortis:
    • min: 32* F
    • optimum: 98* to 100* F
    • max: 120* F
  15. When rigor develops it involves all the muscles:
    at the same time & at the same rate
  16. What muscles does rigor first become apparent?
    in the small muscles; the eye, the jaw, the neck & the face
  17. Historically, who is Nysten's Law named after?
    Pierre Nysten (1774-1817) who was a French pediatrician
  18. Define cadaveric spasm:
    a sudden involuntary movement or convulsion, brought about by involuntary muscular contractions
  19. List the 3 major biochemical structures of the body:
    • 1. proteins
    • 2. carbohydrates
    • 3. fats(lipids)
  20. The basic structure of proteins:
    (to form 1 protein): carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen link together to form amino acids, then the amino acids link together to form proteins
  21. Is protein a liquid or solid? before embalming and after embalming?
    before embalming it is a solid then after embalming it breaks down and becomes a liquid
  22. Define saprophytic bacteria:
    bacteria that contributes to decomposition & that uses dead organic matter for nutrition
  23. Define lysosome:
    an organelle that contributes to enzymatic decomposition, they serve as the cells digestive system, containing enzymes that break down individual proteins or complete microorganisms
  24. The end products of autolysis:
    amino acids, simple sugars, fatty acids & glycerol
  25. The end products of hydrolysis:
    amino acids
  26. The single most important factor in the initiation of decomposition:
    Hydroloysis because it is a chemical reaction in which the chemical bonds of a substance are split by the addition or taking up of water.
  27. Define ptomaines:
    a group of amines formed by decaying organic matter. it is a foul-smelling nitrogenous substances produced by bacteria during putrefaction of animal or plant protein
  28. The decomposition of lipids:
    body fats are broken down by hydrolysis. it dosen't give off foul odors
  29. The decomposition of carbohydrates:
    is fermintation the final products are CO2 & water & does not have a significant effect on embalming & doesn't produce any foul odors
  30. Define adipocere/grave wax:
    is thought to be composed of fatty acids & appears in bodies that have been dead for an extended period
  31. Define saponification:
    the process of soap formation. the conversion of fatty tissue of the body into a soapy, waxy substance
  32. The basic order of decomposition:
    • 1. cells (skin)
    • 2. tissue (blood)
    • 3. organs
  33. The order of tissue decomposition:
    • 1. soft tissue
    • 2. firm tissue
    • 3. hard tissue
  34. The tempature range for decomposition:
    • min: 32* F-Frozen
    • opt: 98* F
    • max: 128* F- Rare
  35. The order of decomposition on body compounds:
    • 1. carbohydrates
    • 2. soft proteins
    • 3. fats
    • 4. hard proteins
  36. The order of putrefaction of the organs:
    • first- the lining membrane of the trachea & larynx
    • exception- the brain of an infant & the pregnate uterus
    • last-non-pregnate uterus or large blood vessels in the male & female
  37. The end products of decomposition:
    ammonia, ammonia compounds, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide (stinks), mercaptan (stinks), nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water, methane, phosphoric acid (stinks), sulfuric acid (stinks)
  38. What does hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan smell like?
    rotten eggs
  39. Define Methane:
    intestinal gas, that is actually odorless
  40. Problems associated with ammonia and ammonium compounds:
    cause an increase in peservative demand
  41. The five classic signs of decomposition:
    • 1. discoloration
    • 2. odor
    • 3. skin slip/desquamation
    • 4. gas formation
    • 5. purge
  42. Define crepitation:
    a crackling sound made by air trapped in the tissues associated with tissue gas and subctaneous emphysema
  43. The four types of purge:
    • stomach purge
    • lung purge
    • brain purge
    • false purge (liquid purge)
  44. Define Agonal:
    it refers to death or dying
  45. Define Agonal Algor:
    decrease in body temperature immediately before death
  46. Define Agonal Coagulation:
    in reference to blood, a change from a fluid into a thickened mass
  47. Define Agonal Edema:
    escape of blood serum from an intravascular to an extravasucalr location immediately before death
  48. Define Agonal Fever:
    increase in body temperature immediately before death
  49. Define Agonal Hypostasis:
    is settling of blood into the dependent tissues of the body
  50. Define Agonal Period:
    period immediately before somatic death
  51. Define Algor Mortis:
    postmortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature
  52. Define anareboic bacteria:
    is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth and can die if oxygen is present.
  53. Define biological death:
    irreversable somatic death
  54. Define brain death:
    occurs in a sequence of events that are a function of time without oxygen. the first part of the brain to die, usually in 5 to 6 minutes is the cerebral cortex.
  55. Define cadaverine:
    a colorless, viscous, toxic ptomaine, C 5 H 14 N 2 , having an offensive odor, formed by the action of bacilli on meat, fish, and other protein: used in polymerization and biological research
  56. Define catalyst:
    a substance that causes or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
  57. Define clinical death:
    phase of somatic death lasting from 5 to minutes durin which life may be restored, and occurs when spontaneous respiration and heartbeat cease
  58. Define death rattle:
    noise made by a moribund person caused by air passing through a residue of mucus in the trachea and posterior oral cavity
  59. Define death struggle:
    semiconvulsive twitches that often occur before death
  60. Define desquamation/skin slip:
    sloughing off of the epidermis, wherin there is a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis
  61. Define extrinsic factors:
    are those in the surrounding environment
  62. Define fermintation:
    bacterial decomposition of carboyhydrates
  63. Define Hydrolysis:
    reaction in which water is one of the reactants and compounds are often broken down.In the hydrolysis of proteins, the addition of water accompanied by the action of enzymes results in the breakdown of protein into amino acids.
  64. Define Hypostasis
    settling of blood and or other fluids to dependent portions of the body
  65. Define intrinsic factors:
    factors found within the body itself
  66. Define Livor Mortis/cadaveric lividity:
    postmortem intravascular red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of blood (livor mortis)
  67. Define moribund:
    in a dying state or in the agonal period
  68. Define Necrobiosis:
    antemortem, physiological death of the cells of the body followed by their replacement
  69. Define Necrosis:
    pathological death of a tissue still a part of the living organisim
  70. Define Peptide bond:
    a covalent bond formed by joining the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another, with the removal of a molecule of water.
  71. Define pH:
    is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution
  72. Define Postmortem caloricity:
    rise in body temperature after death due to continued cellular metabolism
  73. Define postmortem cellular death:
    individual cells will use up stored elements, or will be overcome by autolytic processes and die
  74. Define postmortem chemical change:
    change in the body's chemical composition that occurs after death (decomposition, change in body pH, rigor mortis, postmortem stain, postmortem caloricity)
  75. Define postmortem edema:
    the lower areas where the liquids are flowing to may become engorged
  76. Define postmortem physical change:
    change in the form or state of matter without ay change in chemial composition, for example algor mortis, hypostasis, dehydration, livor mortis, increase in blood viscosity, translocation of microbes
  77. Define postmortem stain:
    extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemolysis of red blood cells, seeps through the vessel walls and into the body tissue
  78. Define protease:
    any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of proteins or polypeptides to smaller amino acid polymers
  79. Define purge:
    postmortem evacuation of any substance from an external orifice of the body as a result of pressure
  80. Define putrefaction:
    decomposition of proteins by th action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria
  81. Define putrescine:
    a colourless crystalline amine produced by decaying animal matter
  82. Define somatic death:
    death of the organism as a whole
  83. Define translocation:
    agonal or postmorem redisstribution of host microflora on a hostwide basis
  84. The pH of a body in rigor:
    pH of 6 or more
  85. Secondary flaccidity occurs how many hours after death?
    36-72 hours
  86. rigor mortis occurs how many hours after death?
    2-4 hours, it makes the end of muscel cell life
  87. the "apparent" directional occurance of rigor is known as:
    Nysten's Law
  88. Cadaveric spasms once thought to be brought about by:
    irregular occurance of rigor
  89. After death the pH of the body changes from alkaline to acidic & the membrances surrounding the lysosome rupture:
    The lysosomes will then digest the cell
  90. The list of ptomaines:
    • indole,
    • skatole,
    • cadaverine,
    • putrescine
  91. Their is not protein in fat so it
    makes it not able to be embalmed
  92. Define Color Changes:
    post mortem stain (hemolysis)
  93. The color changes look like:
    marbling of the superfical veins (arteries are generally opaque, veins are generally transparent)
  94. Color changes of a greenish color appear:
    the lower right quadrant of the abdomen; caused by hydrogen sulfide ( a product of decomposition) & hemoglobin
  95. Odor is caused by:
    the decomposition of proteins (proteolysis) which will create amines
  96. Odor comes from:
    ptomaines, mercaptan & hydrogen sulfide
  97. Desquamation/skin slip occur when:
    hydrolysis of collagen & elastin cause superficial skin layers to pull away & blisters may form
  98. Define gas:
    in the viscera occurs during general decomposition, it begins the stomach or intestine (pm flatulence)
  99. List 3 types of gas:
    • tissue gas- gas gangrene by clostridium perfringins (am)
    • subcutaneous emphysema-gas & distention of tissue from trauma or surgerycrepitation- trapped air with both combine