Complex Societies of North America
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Complex Societies of North America
Adapted from 'The Human Past' ed. Scarre 2005 Thames & Hudson
Most of the finely crafted artifacts associated with Hopewell...
...were made from exotic and rare materials, and have come from mounds (P.683)
Give 2 facts about the exchange networks of the Plains Village Indians.
They extended to the Eastern Woodlands, Southwest, and the Pacific Coast.
They included contact with Mississipians (P.705)
Where was the epicentre of the Hopewell phenomenon?
Who did Hopewell's special burial treatment with fine objects and mound structures focus on?
Adults and males, but included women and children (P.685)
What occurred during the 12th and 13th centuries in the Mesa Verde region?
Cliff dwellings appeared in sandstone alcoves and rockshelters.
The northern Colorado Plateau was completely abandoned by farmers.
As the number of communities grew, territorial overlaps caused tensions or conflict (P.700)
What occurred between AD 100 and 400 on the Colorado Plateau?
Economically autonomous households emerged as the unit of production.
Pottery widely appeared.
Domestic pithouse dwellings underwent a dramatic increase in size (P.694)
When did maize become an essential part of Eastern Woodland diets?
Somewhere between AD 800 and 1100 (P.686)
Give 2 facts about Hohokam canal irrigation.
It was affected by deepening and widening of the Gila River between AD 1020 and 1160.
It may have led to eventual salinisation of fields (P.692)
The Hopewell era was one of...
...low inter-group hostilities indicated by relatively few skeletal injuries (P.685)
At the time of European contact, where were Native North Americans living?
They had adapted successfully to a vast range of environments, from the Arctic to the Sonoran desert (P.679)
In Late Woodland times, inter-group relations...
...were worsening, seen in lack of long-distance trade, violent deaths, and increased small arrowheads (P.686)
State 3 facts about Classic period Hohokam platform mound settlements in the Phoenix, Tucson, and Tonto basins.
They were organised in linear systems along major canals.
They probably were discrete political units.
They were the site of increasingly centralised ritual and political events (P.692)
How have archaeologists traced the adoption of maize-rich diets?
Analysis of charred maize found in excavations at village sites, and stable carbon isotope signatures of human bones (P.686)
Early and Middle Woodland earthworks...
...formed circles, squares, and other shapes, as well as fortress-like enclosures (P.682)
Give 3 facts about the Middle Woodland.
It lasted c. 200 BC to AD 400.
It was socially highly complex.
It is often equated with Hopwell culture (P.681)
Mississipian artifacts indicating an aggressive ideology and warrior iconography...
...are referred to as Southern Cult or Southeastern Ceremonial complex.
Include axes, maces, and other weapons.
Display motifs such as weeping eyes, warriors & supernatural composites, and severed heads (P.687)
What is the single most impressive Lat Woodland site?
According to the text (Scarre), how long did the Early Woodland period last?
800 to 200 BC (P.681)
Who were the first Europeans to reach North America with certainty?
Small groups of Norse (P.680)
Between c. AD 900 and 1150 in Chaco Canyon...
...great houses were constructed, large quantities of water and sediment were available for farming, and Pueblo Bonito was a spiritual centre (P.697)
In terms of Native cultures, North America is commonly divided into...
...the Eastern Woodlands, Plains, Southwest, California, Northwest Coast, and Arctic (P.679)
What was the emergence of household organisation on the Colorado Plateau related to?
Demographic and social factors promoting competition (P.695)
During the Pueblo I period...
...aggregates of multiple households indicate village formation (P.695)
How did Northwest Coast hunter-gatherer-fishers live?
In plank houses, in permanent villages, with several social classes (P.707)
An important change about 2000 years ago was...
...a dramatic increase in the dietary significance of native cultigens (P.684)
What was the greatest cause of declines in Native North American populations?
Highly contagious, fever-producing diseases (P.712)
After about 800 AD, regional variations in ceramic designs among Puebloan villages signified...
...formation of group boundaries (P.697)
Give 3 facts about the burials of highly ranked Mississipians.
They contained symbols of rank shared across the Mississipian world.
They occasionally contained human sacrifices.
They were interred in mounds (P.687)
In the Santa Barbara Channel area, what did the emergence of chiefdoms follow?
Several centuries of greater inter-community conflict (P.706)
Give 3 facts about pre-AD 1000 settlements in the Great Plains.
They have yielded pottery and projectile points similar to Eastern Middle Woodland forms.
They included earthen mounds containing tombs with artifacts of marine shell and obsidian.
They may have been in contact with Eastern Woodlands people (P.702)
What was the Pacific Northwest home to?
Complex hunter-gatherer-fishers, numerous chiefdoms, and a rich artistic tradition (P.707)
What did Late Woodland environments in the Eastern Woodlands consist of?
Vegetation mosaics with gardens, shrubby patches, and mature stands of trees (P.684)
State 3 facts about well-known expeditions by European explorers.
They include De Soto's in the southeast, and Coronado's through the southwest.
They quickly spread disease and death throughout Native American populations.
They were followed by colonisation by the English and French (P.712)
In the 16th Century, Native Americans were...
...nomadic and settled hunter-gatherers, and sedentary agriculturalists in small and large settlements (P.679)
State 2 facts about the Thule people.
They lived in an environment with rich but unpredictable resources.
They faced the risk of starvation, exemplified at the Ukkuqsi site (P.710)
In the Midwest & Southeast, what is the era of rising chiefdoms after AD 1000 known as?
The Mississipian Period (P.687)