Chapter 14

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DesLee26
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58592
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Chapter 14
Updated:
2011-01-09 15:30:45
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Mendel Gene Idea
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AP Bio
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  1. The reception of genetic qualities by transmission from parent to offspring.
    inheritence
  2. An individual with the normal (most common) phenotype.
    wild type
  3. The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization.
    F1 Generation
  4. The physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by its genetic makeup.
    phenotype
  5. An allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote.
    recessive allele
  6. The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism.
    genotype
  7. An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote.
    dominant allele
  8. The phenotype that results from having at least one dominant allele.
    dominant phenotype
  9. Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
    allele
  10. Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
    homozygous
  11. Having two different alleles for a given gene.
    heterozygous
  12. An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. All the offspring from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles are monohybrids. For example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid of genotype Aa.
    monohybrid cross
  13. A cross of an individual with a dominant phenotype to a homozygous recessive individual in order to find out its genotype is called a __.
    testcross
  14. There are two possible outcomes of a testcross.
    --> If all the __ offspring have the ___ then the genotype of the parent with the ___is __.
    --> If half of the __offspring have the dominant phenotype and half have the ___, then the genotype of the parent with the dominant phenotype is __.
    • F1
    • dominant phenotype x2
    • homozygous dominant
    • F1
    • recessive phenotype
    • heterozygous
  15. As usual, an individual with the recessive phenotype has the __.
    homozygous recessive genotype
  16. Referring to plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate.
    true breeding
  17. If we did not know the genotype of the F1 individual, we could perform a ___.
    testcross
  18. An organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest. All the offspring from a cross between parents doubly homozygous for different alleles are dihybrids. For example, parents of genotypes AABB and aabb produce a dihybrid of genotype AaBb.
    dihybrid
  19. An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote.
    dominant allele
  20. Breeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype. The ratio of phenotypes in the offspring determines the unknown genotype.
    testcross
  21. Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
    F2 Generation
  22. The expected phenotypic ratio in the F2 generation for a cross of two characters that segregate independently.
    9:3:3:1 ratio
  23. The Austrian monk __ brought an experimental, quantitative approach to the study of __. In this activity, you can work alongside Mendel and study some of the principles of genetics that he discovered working in his monastery garden.
    • Gregor Mendel
    • heredity
  24. The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
    crossing over
  25. An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. All the offspring from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles are monohybrids. For example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid of genotype Aa.
    monohybrid

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