Spinal Nerves.txt

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Spinal Nerves.txt
2011-01-07 21:41:38

Spinal nerves
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  1. Olfactory Nerve ( CN I) Lesion?
    • -Loss of smell (anosmia)
    • -Loss affects taste
    • - Could result from trauma involving cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
    • -Chronic exposure to lead, chlorine, and cadmium
  2. Optic Nerve (CN II)
    • -Passes through Optic canal
    • -Crosses at optic chiasm
    • -Inflammation of infundibulum can compress nerve
  3. Oculomoter Nerve (CNIII)
    • -muscle efferent to extrinsic eye muscles
    • -medial rectus
    • -superior rectus
    • -inferior rectus
    • -inferior oblique
    • -Muscle efferent to upper eyelid
    • -levator palpebrae superioris muscle
    • -Eye closes with lesion
    • -ptosis
  4. Oculomoter Nerve parasympathetics?
    • - postganglionics to intrinsic eye muscles from ciliary ganglion
    • -constrictor pupillae muscle
    • - ciliary muscle - controls lens thickness
  5. Sympathetics of the intrinsic eye?
    • - enters orbit with carotid plexus
    • -Dilator pupillae muscle
    • -Muller's muscle (superior tarsal muscle)
    • -smooth muscle
  6. Where does oculomotor nerve arise from?
    • oculomotor nuclear complex of the midbrane
    • -leaves the brainstem in the interpeduncular fossa
    • -enters orbit through superior orbital fissure
  7. What two arteries does the oculomotor nerve pass between?
    superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries
  8. Two branches of oculomotor nerve (CN III)
    • -superior
    • -levator palpebrae superioris
    • -superior rectus
    • -inferior
    • -inferior and medial rectus
    • -inferior oblique
    • -cilliary ganglion
  9. 3rd nerve palsy, injury to oculomotor nerve?
    • -eye looks down and away
    • -unopposed action of the lateral rectus and superior oblique
    • -eyelid closed
    • -fixed dilated pupil
    • -unopposed sympathetics
  10. Trochlear Nerve (IV)
    • -muscle efferent
    • -from dorsal aspect of the mesencephalon (midbrane)
    • - innervantes superior oblique
    • -superior orbital fissue
    • -pulls eye down
  11. CN IV Leasion
    • -sever head trauma
    • -diplopia (double vision)
    • -tilts head down and away from affected side
  12. Trigeminal Nerve (V)
    • -sensory afferent pg 695 in book
    • -Efferent (muscles from first branchial arch)
    • -muscles of mastication
    • -tensor tympani
    • tensor velli palantini
    • -anterior belly of digastric muscle
    • -mylohyoid muscle
  13. Trigeminal Divisions all sensory
    • V1 opthalmic - cornea and nasal cavity
    • V2 maxillary- maxillary teeth, sinuses
    • V3 mandibular - anterior 2/3 tongue, touch sense
  14. Trigeminal Neuralgia AKA tic douloureux
    • -most common cranial neuralgia
    • -attacks of excruciating pain over the nerve branches
    • -mostly V2 and V3
    • -treat with antiepileptic drugs
  15. Abducens Nerve (CN VI)
    • - sensory and motor
    • - lateral rectus
    • -exits bran stem at the pontomedullary junction
    • -enters through superior orbital fissure
  16. Abducens Nerve Lesion?
    • Vlth Nerve palsy
    • -Lateral Gaze defect
  17. Fascial Nerve (CNVII)
    • -Motor to muscles of fascial expression
    • -derived from second branchial arch
    • -also stapedius muscle. posterior belly of digastric muscle
    • -Taste anterior 2/3 tongue via chorda tympani
    • -Viscral preganglionic efferents arise in the superior saslvatory nucleus
    • -travels through the paratid gland
  18. Facial nerve branches?
    • -Temporal
    • -Zygomatic
    • -Buccal
    • -Mandibular
    • -Cervical
  19. Attenuation Reflex?
    after exposure to loud sound the stapedius and tensor tympani contract to protect ear.
  20. Bells Palsy?
    • -most common fascial nerve disorder
    • -spontaneous onset
    • -gradual recovery
    • - always idiopathic. not from trauma
  21. Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII)
    • -vestibular nerve-balance, head position and movement
    • -cochlear nerve - hearing
    • through internal auditory meat
  22. Acoustic Neuroma?
    • -Acoustic schwannoma
    • -cerebellopontine angle
    • -slow growth
    • -benign but space occupying
    • -Tinnitus (ringing in ears), hearing loss and vertigo
    • -can also compress fascial nerve and cause facial paralysis
  23. Glossopharyngeal Nerve CN(IX)
    • -posterior 1/3 of tongue taste
    • -sensation of posterior 1/3 pf tongue
    • -motor to stylopharygeus muscle
    • - from carotid body, pharynx, middle ear ( gag reflex)
    • -pre ganglionic to otic ganglion then to parotid gland
  24. Vegus Nerve X
    • -Taste, epiglottis and palate
    • -sensation from tongue, pharynx, trachea, heart , foregut, and midgut
    • -motor to constrictor muscle of pharynx, intrinsic muscles of larynx, muscles of palate
    • -sensory from external auditory meatus, dura of posterior fossa
    • -visceral efferent to gut
  25. Injury to Vegus nerve
    • -Uvula will deviate to the opposite side, Normal side
    • -palatoglossus muscle will not contract on affected side
    • -curtain call
  26. Accessory Nerve (XI)
    • -motor to striated muscle of soft palate, pharynx and larynx via fibers joined with X
    • -motor to SCM and trapezius
  27. Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII)
    • -motor only to muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus
    • -No sensory
  28. Injury to CN XII
    -protruded tongue points toward side of damage.