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any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects—it changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
- Behavioral sedation (e.g., alcohol, sedative, anxiolytic drugs)
- Barbiturates & Benzodiazepines
Increase alertness and elevate mood (e.g., cocaine, nicotine, caffeine)
Produce analgesia and euphoria (e.g., heroin, morphine, codeine)
Alter sensory perception (e.g., marijuana, LSD)
Other drugs of abuse
Include inhalants, anabolic steroids, medications
DSM Criteria for Substance Abuse
- 1)Failure to fulfill important obligations at work, home, or school as a result of repeated substance use.
- 2)Repeated use of the substance in situations in which it is physically hazardous to do so (e.g. drinking and driving).
- 3)Repeated legal problems as a result of substance use.
- 4)Continued use of the substance despite repeated social or legal problems as a result of use (includes arguing with loved ones over use of substance).
DSM Criteria for Substance Dependence
- 3.Large Doses
- 4. Persistent desire or repeated unsuccessful attempt to quit
- 5. Much time/activity to obtain, use, recover
- 6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced
- 7. Use continues despite knowledge of adverse consequences (e.g., failure to fulfill role obligation, use when physically hazardous
drinking five or more drinks on one occasion at least once per month
Heavy alcohol use
binge drinking for five or more days in a month
Effects of Cocaine
- 1.Short lived sensations of elation, vigor, reduce fatigue
- 2. Effects result from blocking the reuptake of dopamine
- 3. Highly addictive, but addiction develops slowly
- Usually people cycle through withdrawal and dependence
Effects of nicotine
- 1. Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in CNS
- 2. Results in sensations of relaxation, wellness, pleasure
- 3. Highly addictive
- 4. Relapse rates equal those seen with alcohol and heroin
- 5. Nicotine users dose themselves to maintain a steady state of nicotine
- 6. Smoking has complex relationship to negative affect
- Appears to help improve mood in short-term
- Depression occurs more in those with nicotine dependence
Effects of Caffeine Use
- 1. Small doses elevate mood and reduce fatigue
- 2. Regular use can result in tolerance and dependence
- 3. Caffeine blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter adenosine
Effects of Opioids
- 1.Activate body’s enkephalins and endorphins
- 2.Low doses induce euphoria, drowsiness, and slowed breathing
- 3.High doses can result in death
- 4.Withdrawal symptoms can be lasting and severe