Chp 18 Bio

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Chp 18 Bio
2010-02-03 00:06:21

Bio H
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  1. Ecology
    The study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving compenents of their environment
  2. Interdependence
    All organisms interact with other organisms in their surroundings and with the nonliving portion of their environment, their survival depends on these interactions
  3. Ecological Models
    Represents/describes the components of an ecological system
  4. Biosphere
    The broadest, most inclusive level of organization
  5. Ecosystem
    Includes all of the organisms and the nonliving environment found in a particular place
  6. Community
    All the interacting organisms living in an area
  7. Population
    Includes all the members of a species that live in one place at one time
  8. Habitat
    The place where an organism lives
  9. Biotic Factor
    The living components of the environment
  10. Abiotic Factors
    The nonliving factors of the environment
  11. Tolerance Curve
    A graph of performance versus values of an environmental variable
  12. Acclimation
    Process where some organisms can adjust their tolerance to abiotic factors
  13. Conformers
    Organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions; they change as their external environment changes
  14. Regulators
    Organisms that use energy to control some of their internal conditions
  15. Dormacy
    A longer-term strategy is to enter a state of reduced activity
  16. Migration
    Another strategy is to move to a more favorable habitat
  17. Niche
    The specific role, or way of life, of a species within its environment
  18. Generalist
    Species with broad nishec; they can tolerate a range of conditions and use a variety of resources
  19. Specialist
    Species that have narrow niches
  20. Producers
    Autotrophs that capture energy and use it to make organic molecules
  21. Chemosynthesis
    Bacteria use energy stored in organic molecules to produce carbohydrates
  22. Gross Primary Productivity
    The rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture the energy of sunlight by producing organic compounds
  23. Biomass
    Ecologists refer to the organic material that has been produced in an ecosystem
  24. Net Primary Productivity
    The rate at which biomass accumulates
  25. Consumers
    Heterotrophs that obtain energy by consuming organic molecules made by other organisms
  26. Herbivores
    Eat producers
  27. Carnivores
    Eat other consumers
  28. Omnivores
    Eat both producers and consumers
  29. Detritivores
    Consumers that feed on the "garbage" of an ecosystem
  30. Decomposers
    Organisms that cause decay by breaking down complex molecules into simpler molecules
  31. Trophic Level
    Indicates the organism's position in a sequence of energy transfers
  32. Food Chain
    A single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosytem that results in energy transfer
  33. Food Web
    The interrelated food chains in an ecosystem
  34. Biochemical Cycles
    Substances such as water, carbon, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus each pass between the living and nonliving worlds
  35. Groundwater
    Water in the soil or in underground formations of porous rock is known
  36. Water Cycle
    The movement of water between these various reservoirs
  37. Transpiration
    The process by which water evaporates from the leaves of plants in terrestrial ecosystems
  38. Carbon Cycle
    Photosynthesis and cellular respiration form the basis of this
  39. Nitrogen Cycle
    The complex pathway that nitrogen follows in an ecosystem
  40. Nitrogen Fixation
    The process of converting N2 gas to nitrate
  41. Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
    Transforms nitrogen gas into a usable form
  42. Ammonification
    The process which decomposers break down materials and release the nitrogen they contain as ammonia, NH3, which in soil becomes ammonium, NH4+
  43. Nitrification
    Soil bacteria take up ammonium and oxidize it into nitrites, NO2-, and nitrates, NO3-
  44. Dentrification
    Nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere
  45. Phosphorus Cycle
    The movement of phosphorus from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment