Mesoamerican Civilization

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Mesoamerican Civilization
2011-01-08 12:25:42

Adapted from 'The Human Past' ed. Scarre 2005 Thames & Hudson
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  1. Give 3 facts about Mayan society.
    Women could serve as regents or rule as queens in their own right.

    Members of a royal family were sometimes artisans or scholars of esoteric lore.

    Titled male and female lords and officials served governmental and ritual functions (P.625)
  2. During Tula's era of domination in Central Mexico...
    ...strong links were forged with the Pacific and Gulf coasts of Mexico, and as far away as Central America.

    Trade was carried out with people in far Northern Mexico, outside of Mesoamerica (P.628)
  3. Which of the following is NOT an early Mesoamerican civilization?

    Hohokam (P.595)
  4. Geographically, Mesoamerica incorporates...'s central Mexico to El Salvador (P.595)
  5. What were Cantona, El Tajin, Cacaxtla, and Xochicalco?
    Epiclassic sites that gained power after the fall of Teotihuacan (P.621)
  6. When did the Mesoamerican ball game appear?
    As early as 1400 BC (P.599)
  7. What did Cantona, a Classic centre east of Teotihuacan, lack?
    Monumental sculpture or other preserved symbolic statements (P.620)
  8. What can the Middle Horizon be explained by?
    The activities of noble Teotihuacan factions expelled from their homeland, and the outright Teotihuacan colonisation of strategic locales (P.616)
  9. Where was Monte Alban situated?
    Atop a large hill or mountain, with its population dwelling on hillside terraces (P.612)
  10. What are some distinctive elements of Puuc architecture?
    Columns and complicated mosaic sculptures of gods, humans, and geometric designs (P.631)
  11. What is the 'Hiatus'?
    The period of Maya Early Classic population decline and political crisis (P.623)
  12. Name a region that was never politically unified.
    The southern Maya lowlands (P.624)
  13. What did the Mexica-Tenochca do after a falling out with their Tepanec overlords?
    They joined with two other states, Texcoco & Tlacopan, to overthrow the Tepanecs. This coalition was known as the Triple Alliance (P.633)
  14. By 1519 the mature Aztec empire...
    ...dominated about 400 previously independent polities.

    Ruled over an area of about 200,000 sq km.

    Stretched across the Gulf Coast, the Valley of Oaxaca, parts of Western Mexico, and the Pacific Coast of Guatemala (P.636)
  15. Give 3 facts about where Mesoamerican glyphs were used.
    They were carved or painted on stone stelae, altars, thrones, tombs, and architectural elements.

    They were painted or inscribed on ceramic vessels, jewellery, bones, and shells.

    They were painted in accordion-fold books called codices (P.607)
  16. Where is the Epiclassic centre of La Quemada situated?
    It lies far to the north, almost outside of Mesoamerica (P.622)
  17. What is Teotihuacan noted for?
    Apartment compounds, specialised manufacture of obsidian implements, and the Great compound, which was a huge marketplace (P.613)
  18. What 3 things occurred when the great southern kingdoms of the Maya collapsed?
    Northern Yucatan polities weathered the collapse and even benefited from it.

    Population began to expand greatly in the Puuc region of northwest Yucatan.

    Imposing centres such as Sayil, Kabah, Labna, and Uxmal rose in the Puuc area (P.631)
  19. Give 3 facts about the lord named Siyaj K'ak.
    He had strong connections to Teotihuacan.

    He became king of Tikal in AD 378.

    He is recorded on several stelae in the Maya region (P.616)
  20. State 2 facts about Mayapan in the Yucatan peninsula.
    It was founded by the Cocom family.

    It had small and shabby architecture compared to Chichen Itza.
  21. What did the Aztec 'pipiltin' do?
    It monopolised the highest political and religious offices and formed the backbone of the army (P.637)
  22. What evidence is there for Teotihuacan's influence throughout Mesoamerica?
    The dynastic lines of Tikal and Copan.

    The presence of Pachuca obsidian in areas far from the Basin of Mexico.

    Teotihuacan architectural elements discovered at several sites (P.613)
  23. What is the Teuchitlan cultural tradition associated with?
    Monumental circular buildings (P.620)
  24. What were Nakbe and El Mirador?
    Probably the seats of very early Maya kings (P.610)
  25. After being driven out of other regions as despised refugees, what did the Mexica do in AD 1325?
    They founded their capital on some small islands in a swampy part of Lake Texcoco, and named it Tenochtitlan (P.634)
  26. What is the collapse of Teotihuacan as a major power associated with?
    Extensive burning of temples along the Street of the Dead.

    Deliberate destruction in the Ciudadela.

    Disappearance of a religious and ideological order that had integrated Mesoamerica (P.620)
  27. Give 3 facts about the Spanish conquest in 1519.
    The Aztec empire was ruled by Motecezuma II.

    Cortes arrived on the day that Aztec prophesies indicated Quetzalcoatl would return.

    The Spaniards made alliances with the Aztec's enemies, the Tlaxcallans (P.638)
  28. Where are Olmec polities found?
    The Gulf Coast lowlands (P.601)
  29. Polities in Preclassic western Mexico...
    ...were heirarchically organised, with impressive mortuary rituals (P.605)
  30. Comment briefly on the systems used by Mayan farmers.
    They used several types of intensive farming systems, including terraces and drained fields (P.625)
  31. What is the Olmec civilisation famous for?
    Huge monolithic sculptures of stone heads (P.601)
  32. What ideological beliefs and practices did Mesoamerica share?
    Shamanism, 260- & 365-day calendars, and a reverence for jade and other green stones (P.595)
  33. Give 3 facts about Chichen Itza.
    It displays many central Mexican architectural features.

    It benefited from trade in salt.

    It declined around AD 1200 or 1250 (P.632)