Ancient Egypt Review Sheet
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What is monotheism?
The belief in a single god.
What is polytheism?
The belief in many gods.
What is the delta?
The delta begins about 100 miles before the river enters the Mediterranean. The delta is a broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of the river.
What is a Cataract?
Boulders in the Nile River that turn into churning rapids.
What are hieroglyphics?
The Egyptian system of writing. The earliest form had a picture standing for an idea. The system changed so that pictures stood for sounds as well as ideas.
The first Egyptian dynasty was started by Narmer at Memphis. Ancient Egypt consisted of 31 dynasties, over 2,600 years.
What is a pharaoh?
The Egyptian god-kings. They were thought to be almost as powerful as the gods of the heavens. Kings were gods. Pharaohs were the center of Egypt’s religion, government, and army.
Talk about Egyptian Empires.
Thutmose III was a very warlike ruler. He led a number of invasions toward the east. His armies also pushed farther south in Nubia. Egypt then became a mighty empire. It controlled lands around the Nile and far beyond, and drew boundless wealth from them. After 1200 B.C., the empire slowly came apart as other strong civilizations rose to challenge Egypt’s power.
What was papyrus and its purpose?
The writing surface for hieroglyphics. Papyrus reeds grew in the marshy delta. The Egyptians split the reeds into narrow strips, placed them crosswise into two layers, dampened them, and then pressed them.
What were Obelisks?
An Egyptian monument that was tall and narrow with a pyramid shaped top. They were common in Egyptian architecture, and were also placed in pairs at the entrance of temples.
What was the Ka?
Egyptians believed that their king ruled even after his death. His eternal life force, which continued to take part in the governing, of Egypt was ka.
It is unsure which of the two kings united Upper and Lower Egypt. Some evidence points to Menes; however, more solid evidence points to Narmer. Narmer created a crown that was a combined crown from Upper and Lower Egypt which symbolized a united kingdom.
A pharaoh during the New Kingdom. She took over because her stepson, who was the male heir to the throne, was a young child at the time. Instead of waging war, she encouraged trade during her reign.
Asiatic invaders that ruled Egypt from about 1640 to 1570 B.C. Egyptians did not like the Hyksos and drove them out of Egypt and pushed them across the Sinai Peninsula into Palestine.
An Egyptian pharaoh that made a treaty with a Hittite king after several battles. He was a great builder of the New Kingdom. He had two temples built.
He changed his name from Tutankhaton to Tutankhamon. Tutankhamon showed that he had returned to traditional religious practices by changing his name back. He reigned during the New Kingdom.
the god of the dead.
The personification of the rising sun and symbol of eternal life and resurrection.
The most important goddess. Represented the ideal mother and wife.
A man with the head of a jackal. He was the god of embalming and of the dead.
A French scholar who brok eht ecode of the hieroglyphics.
The Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone is a stone with a message written in three languages. One version was in hieroglyphics, a second was in a simpler form of hieroglyphics. And the third was in Greek. Because ancient Greek was a well-known language, it provided clues to deciphering hieroglyphics. It took many years, but a French scholar broke the code of the hieroglyphics in 1822.
Hatshepsut’s stepson. He was a warlike ruler. He led a number of victorious invasions eastward into Palestine and Syria.
What wee the three seasons?
The three seasons were Inundation, Emergence and Harvest or Drought. June – September was Inundation, which was the flooding of the Nile when building projects took place. Emergence was from October – February and was the planting season. The Harvest season was March – May, and they either harvested their crops, or it was a drought.
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