Ancient Middle East Review Sheet

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Ancient Middle East Review Sheet
2011-01-08 21:50:52
Ancient Middle East Review Sheet

Ancient Middle East Review Sheet
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  1. What were the King's Eyes and Ears?
    The King’s Eyes and Ears were inspectors who were sent out to ensure the loyalty of the satrap, military leader, and tax collector of each province.
  2. What was a Satrap?
    A governor of a province in the Persian Empire.
  3. What was a Satrapy?
    Each area of land that was ruled by the satraps
  4. What was the Great Royal Road?
    The Royal Road was a road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia.
  5. What was a Ziggurat?
    A tiered pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a Sumerian temple.
  6. What is the Fertile Crescent?
    The Fertile Crescent is an arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea.
  7. What was the Cradle of Civilization?
  8. What was the Crossroads of the World?
    The Middle East, which was the meeting point of three different continents.
  9. What was a city-state?
    A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit.
  10. What was Cuneiform?
    A system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.
  11. What was Ur?
    One of the earliest cities in Sumer located on the banks of the Euphrates River in what is now southern Iraq. Ur was the site of a highly sophisticated civilization.
  12. What aws Nineveh?
    Assyria’s capital, which was along the Tigris River.
  13. What was the Code of Hammurabi?
    The law of the Babylonian Empire, holds people responsible for their actions. And it was a single, uniform code of laws.
  14. What was the Gilgamish Epic?
    A long poem, which holds some of the richest accounts of Mesopotamian myths and legends.
  15. Who were the Carriers of Civilization?
    The Phoenicians.
  16. What was the Babylonian Captivity?
    The Jews had been driven from their homeland by the Babylonians. They were allowed to return to Jerusalem under Cyrus’s rule later. Under Persian rule, the Jews rebuilt their city and temple.
  17. What is the Torah?
    The first five books of the Hebrew Bible––the most sacred writings in the Jewish tradition.
  18. What is the Hebrew Law?
    The Ten Commandments were part of a code of laws delivered to Moses. The code included other rules regulating social and religious behavior. The prophets taught that the Hebrews had a duty to worship God and live justly with one another. The roles of men and women were separate in Hebrew society.
  19. What is a Covenant?
    a mutual promise or agreement––especially an agreement between God and the Hebrew people as recorded in the bible.
  20. What is Ethical monotheism?
    Right conduct and the worship of one God.
  21. Who was Nebuchadnezzar?
    A Babylonian king. He ran the Egyptians out of Syria and ancient Palestine, and he twice attacked Jerusalem.
  22. Who was Darius?
    He was Cambyses’s successor and took over the Persian Empire. He was originally the king’s bodyguard. But the Ten Thousand Immortals helped Darius get the throne around 522 B. C. After spending three years stopping revolts, he started establishing a well-organized and efficient administration. His real genius lay in administration; he divided his empire into 20 provinces, and had a satrap, military leader and a tax collector for each province. Darius manufactured metal coins, which circulated throughout an extended empire. Darius conquered a large amount of land.
  23. Who was Sargon?
    In about 2350 B.C. a conqueror named Sargon defeated the city-states of Sumer. Sargon’s conquests helped to spread Sumerian culture even farther, beyond the Tigris- Euphrates Valley. By taking control of both northern and southern Mesopotamia, Sargon created the world’s first empire. Sargon’s dynasty lasted only about 200 years, after which it declined due to internal fighting, invasions, and a famine.
  24. Who was Moses?
    the man who led the Hebrews out of slavery, according to the Torah.
  25. Who was Abraham?
    He was chosen to be the “father” of the Hebrew people by God.
  26. Who was David?
    A Hebrew king, he was an extremely popular leader. He united the tribes, established Jerusalem as the capital, and founded a dynasty.
  27. Who was Solomon?
    A Hebrew King, Solomon succeeded his father, David. Solomon was the most powerful of the Hebrew kings, and built a trading empire.
  28. Who was Cyrus?
    He was a Persian king and a military genius. Cyrus had a wise and tolerant view of empire; he allowed no looting or burning and honored local customs and religions. Cyrus was killed as he fought nomadic invaders.
  29. Who was Hammurabi and what did he do?
    King of the Babylonian Empire, which reached its peak during the reign of Hammurabi. His most enduring legacy is the code of laws he put together, Hammurabi’s code.
  30. What did Assurbanipal do?
    He was an Assyrian king. Nineveh, under his rule, also held one of the world’s largest libraries. King Ashurbanipal collected more than 20,000 clay tablets; it was the first library to have many of the features of a modern library. Ashurbanipal was one of the last might Assyrian kings. Assyrian power had spread itself too thin. Shortly after Ashurbanipal’s death, Nineveh fell.