CFI Psych Exam 2
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. What would you like to do?
Review Intelligence Tests and how they are used
What problems can occur with the use of IQ Tests?
According to Binet's warnings there are two possible ways IQ test can be used wrong
1) Intelligence tests do not measure innate abilites or natural intelligence
2) Intelligence tests, by themselves, should not be used to label people
How is cultural bias seen in an IQ test?
IQ tests seemed to be in favor on an industrialized community such as White middle class in the United States. Researchers believe it is virtually impossible to develop an intelligence test completely free of cultural bias because test will reflect, to some degree, the concepts and values of their culture.
What are nonintellectual factors?
Refer to the noncognitive factors, such as attitude, experience, and emotional functions, that may help or hinder performance on tests.
What is the reward and pleasure center of the brain?
Includes several areas of the brain, such as the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, and involves several neurotransmitters, especially dopamine. These components make up a neural circuity that produces rewarding and pleasurable feelings
What is a fixed action pattern?
An innate biological force that predisposes an organism to behave in a fixed way in the presence of a specific environmental condition.
What is paraphilia?
Sexual deviations that are characterized by repetitive or preferred sexual fantasies involving non human objects, such as sexual attractions to particular articles of clothing
What is the most intense emotion we have?
Highly depends on the culture. According to people of the US, happiness is the most intense emotion where as the Japanese find disgust to be the most intense.
How do lie detectors work?
Based on a theory that if a person tells a lie, he or she will feel some emotions, such as guilt or fear. Feeling guilty or fearful will be accompanied by involuntary physiological responses, which are difficult to suppress or control and can be measured with a machine called a polygraph.
Be able to explain Maslow's theory?
Hierarchy of needs is an ascending order, or hierarchy, in which biological needs are placed at the bottom and social needs at the top. According to Maslow's hierarchy, we satisfy our bilogical needs (bottom of hierarchy) before we satisfy our social needs (top of hierarchy).
What is instinct theory?
Innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior.
What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards?
Extrinsic motivation: involves engaging in a certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards
Intrinsic motivation: Involves engaging in a certain activities or behaviors because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations
What does sexual preference mean?
Also called sexual orientation, refers to whether a person is sexually aroused primarily by member o his or her own sex, the opposites sex, or both sexes.
Be able to describe the three hunger factors and how weight is regulated.
Biological Hunger Factors: Comes from physiological changes in blood and chemistry and signals from digestive organs that provide feedback to the brain, which, in turn, triggers us to eat or stop eating.
Psychosocial: Come from learned associations between food and other stimuli, such as snacking while watching television; sociocultural influences, such as pressures to be thin; and various personality problems, such as depression, dislike or body image, or low self-esteem
Genetic: come from inherited instructions found in our genes. These instructions determine the number of fat cells or metabolic rates of burning off body's fuel, which push us toward being normal, overweight, or underweight.
Weight-regulating genes play a role in influencing appetite, body metabolism, and secretion of hormones (leptin) that regulate fat stores.
What is the nature-nuture question and what is the controversary around this question?
Asks how nature-hereditary or genetic factors-interacts with nurture-environmental factors-in the development of a person's intellectual, emotional, and social abilities.
How can IQ scores be raised?
What are the 3 categories of mental retardation and what is the prognosis in each category?
Mild Mental Retardation: IQ range from 50 to 70, can learn to read and write, gain social competency, master simple occupational skills, and become self supporting in society
Moderate Mental Retardation: IQ range from 35 to 55, can learn to become partially independent in their every day lives provided they are in a family or self-help setting
Sever/Profound Mental Retardation: IQ range from 20-40, can acquire limited skills in taking care of their personal needs. Require considerable supervision due to impaired motor and verbal abilities
What are the reasons some people are "underachievers"?
Fear of failure, poor perceptions of their abilities, low self esteem, and poor peer relationships
Be able to explain the two major eating disorders and the treatment programs that are available.
Anorexia nervosa: Characterized by refusing to eat and not maintaining weight at 85% of what is expected, having an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, and missing at least three consecutive menstrual cycles. Treatment includes a form of family therapy with parents helping their child to start eating and then letting him/her control their own eating
Bulimia nervosa: A minimum of 2 binge-eating episodes per week for at least three months; fear of not being able to stop eating; regularly engaging in vomiting, use of laxatives, or rigorous dieting and fasting. Treatment includes cognitive-behavioral therapy, which focuses on substituting positive thoughts for negative ones, or interpersonal therapy, which focuses on improving a person's social functioning.
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