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Having both polar and non polar regions
Four Types of Lipids
- 1) Phospholipids - membranes
- 2) Triaclylglycerols - store E/pad (adipose)
- 3) Steroids - metabolic activity/mem component
- 4) Fatty Acids - can act as local hormones
the greater the ratio of lipid to protein the lower the density (lipid is less dense than protein)
Glucose is ____ to form ATP.
What organ regulates blood glucose level?
- The Liver
- Can convert glycogen to glucose (gluconeogensis)
In the absence of insulin:
Only neural and hepatic cells can absorb sufficient glucose.
What can absorb glucose against the concentration gradient?
- - digestive epithelial
- - the proximal tubule of the kidney
utilizes secondary active transport
What do plants form from glucose?
Starch and Cellulose
What are some nucleotides besides A, T, C, G?
ATP, cAMP, NADH, FADH2
Catalyzes the addition of one substrate to the double bond of another
Governs addition reactions using E
Metabolism: Ana- vs. Cata-
Ana = synthesize
Cata = degradation
Glucose --> 2 Pyruvate, 2 (4-2) ATP, 2 NADH
Occurs in the cytosol in the presence or absence of oxygen.
Glucose + Galactose
The second step in anaerobic respiration.
Pyruvate is reduced to ethanol or lactic acid; NADH is oxidized back to NAD+
Net result of aerobic respiration
(ea glucose molecule produces 2 turns of the KREBs cycle)
Specifics of the products of respiration
- Each turn: 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2
- For ea. NADH 2-3 ATP, for each FADH 2 ATP