Biology Lect 1

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laskiru
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58823
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Biology Lect 1
Updated:
2011-01-09 22:45:12
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Molecular Bio Cellular Respiration
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Molecular Bio, Cellular Respiration
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  1. Having both polar and non polar regions
    Amphipathic
  2. Four Types of Lipids
    • 1) Phospholipids - membranes
    • 2) Triaclylglycerols - store E/pad (adipose)
    • 3) Steroids - metabolic activity/mem component
    • 4) Fatty Acids - can act as local hormones
  3. Lippoprotein Density
    the greater the ratio of lipid to protein the lower the density (lipid is less dense than protein)
  4. Glucose is ____ to form ATP.
    Oxidized
  5. What organ regulates blood glucose level?
    • The Liver
    • Can convert glycogen to glucose (gluconeogensis)
  6. In the absence of insulin:
    Only neural and hepatic cells can absorb sufficient glucose.
  7. What can absorb glucose against the concentration gradient?
    • - digestive epithelial
    • - the proximal tubule of the kidney

    utilizes secondary active transport
  8. What do plants form from glucose?
    Starch and Cellulose
  9. What are some nucleotides besides A, T, C, G?
    ATP, cAMP, NADH, FADH2
  10. Lysase
    Catalyzes the addition of one substrate to the double bond of another
  11. Ligases
    Governs addition reactions using E
  12. Kinases
    Phosphorolates
  13. Phosphatases
    Dephosphorylates
  14. Metabolism: Ana- vs. Cata-
    Ana = synthesize

    Cata = degradation
  15. Glycolosis Products
    Glucose --> 2 Pyruvate, 2 (4-2) ATP, 2 NADH

    Occurs in the cytosol in the presence or absence of oxygen.
  16. Lactose
    Glucose + Galactose
  17. Fermentation
    The second step in anaerobic respiration.

    Pyruvate is reduced to ethanol or lactic acid; NADH is oxidized back to NAD+
  18. Net result of aerobic respiration
    36 ATP

    (ea glucose molecule produces 2 turns of the KREBs cycle)
  19. Specifics of the products of respiration
    • Each turn: 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2
    • For ea. NADH 2-3 ATP, for each FADH 2 ATP

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