Muscle Review

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Author:
ssmith16
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58829
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Muscle Review
Updated:
2011-01-09 19:49:31
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muscles
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Description:
muscles, actions, origins, insertions, innervation
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  1. Trapezius
    • Proximal Attachment:
    • Medial third of superior nuchal line, External
    • occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, and Spinous processes of C7-T12 vertebrae

    • Distal Attachment:
    • lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula

    Innervationa: Spinal accessory

    • Action:
    • -Superior fibers elevate, middle fibers retract, and inferior fibers depress scapula;

    -Superior and inferior fibers act together in superior rotation of scapula (inferior angle outward)
  2. Latissimus Dorsi
    P. Attachment: spinous process of inferior 6 thoracic vertebra, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, & inf. 3 or 4 ribs

    -D. Attachment: floor of intertubercular groove of humerus

    -Innervation: thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)

    Action: extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus & raises body toward arms during climbing.
  3. Rhomboid Major
    P. Attach: spinous process of T2-T5 vertebra

    D. Attach: medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle

    Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve (C5)

    Action: retract scapula, rotate inferior angle medially to depress glenoid cavity, & fix scapula to thoracic wall
  4. Rhomboid Minor
    P. Attach: spinous process of C7 and T1

    D. Attach: medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle

    Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve (C5)

    Action: retract scapula, rotate inferior angle medially to depress glenoid cavity, & fix scapula to thoracic wall
  5. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Origin: mastoid process
    • Insertion: sternum and medial portion of clavicle
    • Innervation: spinal accessory nerve
    • Action: sidebends head toward the ipsilateral side and rotates it away from the ipsilateral side
  6. Levator Scapulae
    Origin: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebra

    Insertion: superior part of medial border of scapula

    Innervation: dorsal scapular and cervical nerves

    Action: elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula , also sidebends neck and rotates it to the same side
  7. Scalene
    Origin: transverse process of C2-C7

    Insertion: 1st rid, 2nd Rib

    Innervation C3-C8

    Action: Elevates first & second rib, side bends and rotates cervical spine towards ipsilateral side
  8. Deltoid
    Origin: lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula

    Insertion: tuberosity of humerous

    Innervation: Axillary nerve

    Action: flex and medially rotate, abduct arm, extends and laterally roates arm
  9. Supraspinatus
    Origin: supraspinous fossa of scapula

    Insertion: superior facet on greater tubercle of humerus

    Innervation: Suprascapular nerve

    Action: initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with rotator cuff muscles
  10. Infraspinatus
    Origin: infraspinatus fossa of scapula

    Insertion: middle facet on greater tubercle of humerus

    Innervation: suprascapular nerve

    Action: laterally rotate arm, help hold humeral head in glenoid cavity, depress humeral head
  11. Teres Minor
    Origin: superior part of lateral border of scapula

    Insertion: inferior facet on greater tubercle of humerus

    Innervation: Axillary nerve

    Action: laterally rotate arm, hold humeral head in glenoid cavity, depress humeral head
  12. Teres Major
    Origin: dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula

    Insertion: medial liip of intertubercular groove of humerus

    Innervation: lower subscapular nerve

    Action: adducts and medially rotates arm
  13. Subscapularis
    Origin: Subscapular fossa

    Insertion: lesser tubercle of humerus

    Innvervation: upper and lower subscapular nerves

    Action: medially roates arm & adducts it, holds humeral head in glenoid activity
  14. Pec Major
    Origin: medial half of clavicle, sternum, superior 6 costal cartilages and aponeurosis of external oblique

    Insertion: lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus

    Innervation: lateral and medical pectoral nerves

    Action: adducts and medially rotates humerus; draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly
  15. Pec Minor
    Origin: 3rd-5th ribs near their costal cartilages

    Insertion: medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula

    Innervation: medial pectoral nerve

    Action: stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall
  16. Serratus Anterior
    Origin: external surfaces of lateral parts of 1-8 ribs

    Insertion: anterior surface of medial border of scapula

    Innervation: long thoracic nerve

    Action: protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall, rotates scapula
  17. Biceps Brachii
    Origin: short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula; long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula

    Insertion: tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis

    Innervation: musculocutaneous nerve

    Action: supinates forearm, flexes forearm, flexes shoulder
  18. Brachialis
    Origin: distal half of anterior surface of humerus

    Insertion: coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna

    Innervation: musculocutaneous nerce

    Action: flexes forearm in all positions
  19. Coracobrachialis
    Origin: tip of coracoid process of scapula

    Insertion: middle third of medial surface of humerus

    Innervation: Musculocutaneous

    Action: flex and adduct arm
  20. Triceps Brachii
    Origin: LH: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula; lateral head: posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove; MH: posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove

    Insertion: proximal end of olecranon of ulna and fascia of forearm

    Innervation: Radial nerve

    Action: extends the forearm, chief extensor
  21. Brachioradialis
    Origin: two-thirds of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

    Insertion: lateral surface of distal end of radius

    Innervation: radial nerve

    Action: flexes forearm, with the thumb up
  22. Pronator Teres
    Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna

    Insertion: middle of lateral surface of radius

    Innervation: median nerve

    Action: pronates and flexes forearm.
  23. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus

    Insertion: base of 2nd meetacarpal bone

    Innervation: median nerve

    Action: Flex and abduct hand
  24. Palmaris Longus
    Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus

    Insertion: distal half of flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis

    Innervation: median nerve

    Action: fles hand (at wrist) and tighten palmar aponeurosis
  25. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon and posterior border of ulna

    Insertion: pisiform bone, hook of hamate, 5th metacarpal

    Innervation: ulnar nerve

    Action: flex and adducts hand
  26. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus, ulnar collateral ligament, coronoid process of ulna, superior half of anterior border of radius

    Insertion: bodies of middle phalanges of medial 4 digits

    Innervation: median nerve

    Action: flexes PIP joint
  27. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    Origin: proximal three-fourths of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: bases of distal phalanx of medial four digits

    Innervation: medial part: ulnar nerve; lateral part: median nerve

    Action: flexes DIP at distal interphalangeal joints of medial four digits; assists with flexion of hand
  28. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    Origin: anterior surface of radius and adjacent interosseous membrae

    Insertion: bases of distal phalanx of thumb

    Innervation: AIN

    Action: flexes phalanx of 1st digit
  29. Pronator Quadratus
    Origin: distal fourth of anterior surface of ulna

    Insertion: distal fourth of anterior surface of radius

    Innervation: AIN

    Action: pronates forearm, deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
  30. Extensor Carpi Radialis
    Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

    Insertion: base of 2nd metacarpal

    Innervation: Radial nerve

    Action: extend and abduct hand at wrist joint
  31. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus

    Insertion: base of 3rd metacarpal

    Innervation: deep branch of radial nerve

    Action: extend hand at wrist joint
  32. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna

    Insertion: base of 5th metacarpal

    Innervation: PIN

    Action: extends and adducts hand at wrist joint
  33. Extensor digitorum
    Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus

    Insertion: extensor expansions of medial four digits

    Innervation: PIN

    Action: extends medial four digits at metacarpophalangeal joints, extends hand at wrist joint
  34. Extensor Digit Minimi
    Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

    Insertion: extensor expansin of 5th digit

    Innervation: PIN

    Action: Extends 5th digit at MCP and IP joints
  35. Supinator
    Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral and anular ligament, supinator fossa, and crest of ulna

    Insertion: lateral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius

    Innervation: deep branch of radial nerve

    Action: supinates forearm
  36. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    Origin: posterior surface of ulna, radius and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: base of 1st metacarpal

    Innervation: PIN

    Action: Abducts thumb and extends it at CMP (snuff box)
  37. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    Origin: posterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: base of proximal phalanx of thumb

    Innervation: PIN

    Action: extends proximal phalanx at CMP joint
  38. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    Origin: posterior surface of middle third of ulna and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: base of distal phalanx of thumb

    Innervation: PIN

    Action: Extends distal phalanx of thumb at MCP and IP joints (snuff box)
  39. Extensor Indicis
    Origin: posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: extensor expansion of 2nd digit

    Innervation: PIN

    Action: Extends 2nd digit and helps to extend hand
  40. Adductor Pollicis
    Origin: bases of 2nd & 3rd metacarpals, capitate, and adjacent carpals, anterior surface of body of 3rd metacarpal

    Insertions: medial sides of bases of proximal phalanx of thumb

    Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

    Action: adducts thumb toward middle digit
  41. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    Origin: Pisiform

    Insertion: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger

    Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

    Action: Abducts digit 5
  42. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
    Origin: hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

    Insertion: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger

    Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

    Action: flexes proximal phalanx of digit 5
  43. Opponens Digiti Minimi
    Origin: hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

    Insertion: medial border of 5th metacarpal

    Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

    Action: draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing digit 5 into opposition with the thumb
  44. Lumbricals 1 & 2
    Origin: Lateral two tendons of flexor digitorum profundus

    Insertion: lateral side of extensor expansions of digits 2-5

    Innervation: median nerve

    Action: flex digits at MCP and extend IP joint
  45. Lumbricals 3 & 4
    Origin: medial 3 tendons of flexor digitorum profundus

    Insertion: lateral sides of extensor expansions of digits 2-5

    Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

    Action: flex digits at MCP joints and extend IP joints
  46. Dorsal Interossei 1-4
    Origin: adjacent sides of 2 metacarpals

    Insertion: extensor expansions and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2-4

    Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

    Action: abduct digits from axial line and act with lumbricals to flex MCP joints and extend IP joints
  47. Palmar Interossei 1-3
    Origin: palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th, and 5th metacarpals

    Insertion: extensor expansions of digits and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2, 4, and 5

    Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

    Action: Adduct digits from axial line and act with lumbricals to flex MCP joints and extend IP joints.
  48. Anductor Pollicis Brevis
    Origin: flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

    Insertion: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

    Innervation: recurrent branch of median nerve

    Action: abducts thumb and helps oppose it
  49. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    Origin: flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

    Insertion: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

    Innervation: recurrent branch of median nerve

    Action: flexes thumb
  50. Opponens Pollicis
    Origin: flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

    Insertion: lateral side of 1st metacarpal

    Innvervation: recurrent branch of median nerve

    Action: draws 1st metacarpal bone medially to oppose thumb toward center of palm and rotates it medially
  51. Gluteus Maximus
    Origin: illium posterior to posterior gluteal line, dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx, and sacrotuberous ligament

    Insertion: most fibers end in IT band that insert into lateral condyle of tibia

    Innervation: inferior gluteal nerve

    Action: extends thigh and assists in its lateral rotation
  52. Gluteus Medius
    Origin: exteranl surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal line

    Insertion: lateral surface of greater trochanter of femuer

    Innervation: superior gluteal nerve

    Action: abduct and medially rotates thigh; keep pelvis level when opposite leg is raised.
  53. Gluteus Minimus
    Origin: external surface of ilium between anterior and interior gluteal lines

    Insertion: anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur

    Innervation: superior gluteal nerve

    Action: abducts and medially rotates thigh
  54. Piriformis
    Origin: anterior surface of sacrum and sacrotuberous ligament

    Insertion: superior border of greater trochanter of femur

    Innervation: branches of ventral rami and S1 and S2

    Action: laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
  55. Obturator Internus
    Origin: pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones

    Insertion: medial surface of greater trochanter of femur

    Innervation: nerve of obturator internus

    Action: laterally rotate extended thiigh and abduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in actabulum
  56. Gemelli Superior and Inferior
    Origin: superior: ischial spine; inferior: ischial tuberosity

    Insertion: medial surface of greater trochanter of femur

    Innervation: superior: nerve to obterator internus; inferior: nerve to quadratus femoris

    Action: laterally roatate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh
  57. Quadratus Femoris
    Origin: lateral border of ischial tuberosity

    Insertion: quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur and area inferior to it

    Innervation: nerve to quadratus femoris

    Action: laterally rotate thigh, steady femoral head in acetabulum
  58. Pectineus
    Origin: superior ramus of pubis

    Insertion: pectineal line of femur, just inferior to lesser trochanter

    Innervation: femoral nerve

    Action: adducts and flexes thigh; assists with medial rotation of thigh
  59. Psoas Major
    Origin: sides of T12-L5 vertebra and discs between them; transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae

    Insertion: lesesr trochanter of femur

    Innervation: ventral rami of lumbar nerves

    Action: act conjoiningly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilizing the joint
  60. Psoas Minor
    Origin: sies of T12-L1 vertebrae and intervertebral disc

    Insertion: pectineal line, iliopectineal eminence via iliopectineal arch

    Innervation: ventral rami of lumbar nerves

    Action: act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip join and stabilizing this joint.
  61. Illiacus
    Origin: iliac crest, iliac fossa, ala of sacrum and anterior sacroiliac ligaments

    Insertion: tendon of psoas major, lesser trochanter, and femur distal to it

    Innervation: femoral nerve

    Action: act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabalizing this joint
  62. TFL
    Origin: ASIS and anterior part of iliac crest

    Insertion: IT band attaches to lateral condyle of tibia

    Innervation: Superior gluteal

    Action: abducts medially rotates, and flexes thigh; helps to keep knee extended; steadies trunk on thigh
  63. Sartorius
    Origin: ASIS and superior part of notch inferior to ASIS

    Insertion: superior part of medial surface of tibia Pes anserine tendon

    Innervation: femoral nerve

    Action: flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint; flex leg at knee joint; medially rotates tibia
  64. Rectus femoris
    Origin: AIIS and ilium superior to acetabulum

    Insertion: base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

    Innervation: femoral nerve

    Action: extend leg at knee joint; steadies hip joint and helps iliopsoas to flex thigh
  65. Vastus lateralis
    Origin: greater trochanter & lateral lip of linea aspera of femur

    Insertion: base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

    Innervation: femoral nerve

    Action: extend leg at knee joint
  66. Vastus Medialis
    Origin: intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur

    Insertion: base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

    Innervation: femoral nerve

    Action: extend leg at knee joint
  67. Vastus Intermedius
    Origin: anterior and lateral surfaces of body of femur

    Insertion: baase of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

    Innervation: femoral nerve

    Action: extend leg at knee joint
  68. Adductor Longus
    Origin: body of pubis inferior to pubic crest

    Insertion: middle third of linea aspera of femur

    Innervation: obturator nerve

    Action: Adducts thigh
  69. Adductor Brevis
    Origin: body and inferior ramus of pubis

    Insertion: pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur

    Innervation: obturator nerve

    Action: adducts thigh and to some extent flexes it
  70. Adductor Magnus
    Origin: adductor: inferior ramus of pubis ramus of ischium; hamstring: ischial tuberosity

    Insertion: adductor: gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line; hamstring: adductor tubercle of femur

    Innervation: adductor: obturator nerve; hamstring: tibial part of sciatic nerve

    Action: adducts thigh, flexes thigh, extends thigh
  71. Gracilis
    Origin: body and inferior ramus of pubis

    Insertion: superior part of medial surface of tibia

    Innervation: obturator nerve

    Action: adducts thigh, flexes leg, and helps rotate it medially
  72. Obturator Externus
    Origin: margins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane

    Insertion: trochanteric fossa of femur

    Innervation: obturator nerve

    Action: laterally rotates thigh, steadies head of femur in acetabulum
  73. Semitendinosus
    Origin: ischial tuberosity

    Insertion: medial surface of superior part of tibia

    Innervation: tibial division of sciatic nerve

    Action: extends thigh: flex leg and rotate it medialy when knee is flexed; when thigh and leg are flexed, these muscles can extend trunk
  74. Semitendinosus
    Insertion: medial surface of superior part of tibia

    Innervation: tibial division of sciatic nerve

    Action: extends thigh: flex leg and rotate it medialy when knee is flexed; when thigh and leg are flexed, these muscles can extend trunk
  75. Semimembranosus
    Origin: Ischial Tuberosity

    Insertion: posterior part of medial condyle of tibia

    Innervation: Tibial division of sciatic nerve

    Action: extends thigh: flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed; when thigh and leg are flexed, these muscles can extend trunk
  76. Biceps Femoris
    Origin: LH: ischial tuberosity; SH linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur

    Insertion: lateral side of head of fibula (tendon is split by fibular collateral ligament of knee

    Innervation: LH: tibial division of sciatic nerve; SH: common fibular

    Action: flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed; extends thigh
  77. Tibialis Anterior
    Origin: lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia and interosseous

    Insertion: medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal

    Innervation: deep fibular

    Action: dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot
  78. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    Origin: lateral condyle of tibia and superior 3/4s of medial surface of the fibula and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits

    Innervation: deep fibular

    Action: extends lateral four digits and dorsiflexes ankle
  79. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    Origin: middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of great toe

    Innervation: deep fibular

    Action: extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle
  80. Fibularis Tertius
    Origin: inferior third of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane

    Insertion: dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal

    Innervation: Deep fibular nerve

    Action: dorsiflexes ankle and aids in eversion of foot
  81. Fibularis Longus
    Origin: head and superior 2/3s of lateral surface of fibula

    Insertion: base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform

    Innervation: superficial fibular

    Action: everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle
  82. Fibularis Brevis
    Origin: inferior 2/3s of lateral surface of fibular

    Insertion: dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal

    Innervation: superficial fibular nerve

    Action: Evert foot and weakly plantar/flex ankle
  83. Popliteus
    Origin: lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus

    Insertion: posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line

    Innervation: tibial nerve

    Action: weakly flexes knee and unlocks it
  84. Flexor Hallucis Longus
    Origin: inferior 2/3s of posterior surface of fibula and inferior part of interosseous membrane

    Insertion: base of distal phalanx of great toe

    Innervation: tibial nerve

    Action: flexes great toe at all joints and weakly plantarflexes ankle; supports longitudinal arches of foot
  85. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    Origin: medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line and by a broad tendon to fibula

    Insertion: bases of distal phalanges of digits 2-4

    Innervation: tibial nerve

    Action: flexes lateral four digits and plantarflexes ankle; supports longitudinal arches of foot
  86. Tibialis Posterior
    Origin: interosseous membrane, posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line and posterior surface of fibula

    Insertion: tuberosity of navicular, cuneiform, and cuboid, and bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals

    Innervation: tibial nerve

    Action: plantarflexes ankle and inverts foot
  87. Gastrocnemius
    Origin: lateral head: lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur; medial head: popliteal surface of femur, superior to medial condyle

    Insertion: posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

    Innervation: tibial nerve

    Action: plantarflexes ankle independent of position of knee and steadies leg on foot
  88. Soleus
    Origin: posterior aspect of head of fibula, superior forth of posterior surface of fibula soleal line and medial border of tibia

    Insertion: posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

    Innervation: tibial nerve

    Action: plantarflexes ankle independent of position of knee and steadies leg on foot
  89. Plantaris
    Origin: inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament

    Insertion: posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

    Innervation: tibial nerve

    Action: weakly assists gastrocnemius in plantarflexing ankle and flexing knee
  90. Abductor Hallucis
    Origin: medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus, flexor reticnaculum and plantar aponeurosis

    Insertion: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit

    Innervation: medial plantar nerve

    Action: abducts and flexes 1st digit
  91. Flexor Digitorum Brevis
    Origin: medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis and intermuscular septa

    Insertion: both sides of middle phalanges of lateral four digits

    Innervation: medial plantar nerve

    Action: flexes lateral four digits
  92. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    Origin: medial and lateral tubercles of tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, and intermuscular septa

    Insertion: lateral side of based of proximal phalanx of 5th digit

    Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

    Action: abducts and flexes 5th digit
  93. Quadratus Plantae
    Origin: medial surface and lateral margin of plantar surface of calcaneus

    Insertion: posterolateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus

    Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

    Action: assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing lateral four digits
  94. Lumbricals
    Origin: tendons of flexor digitorum longus

    Insertion: medial aspect of expansion over lateral four digits

    Innvervation: medial: medial plantar nerve; lateral three: lateral plantar nerve

    Action: flex proximal phalanges and extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits.
  95. Flexor Hallucis Brevis
    Origin: plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiforms

    Insertion: both sides of bases of proximal phalanx of 1st digit

    Innervation: medial plantar nerve

    Action: flexes proximal phalanx of 1st digit
  96. Adductor Hallucis
    Origin: oblique: base of metatarsals 2-4; transverse: plantar ligaments of metatarsophalangeal joint

    Insertion: tendons of both heads attach to lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit

    Innervation: deep branch of lateral plantar nerve

    Action: adducts 1st digit; assists in maintaingin transverse arch
  97. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
    Origin: base of 5th metatarsal

    Insertion: base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit

    Innervation: superficial branch of lateral plantar nerve

    Action: flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit, thereb assisting with its flexion
  98. Plantar Interossei
    OriginL bases of medial sides of metatarsals 3-5

    Insertion: medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges of 3-5th digits

    Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

    Action: adducts digits and flexes metatarsophalangeal joints
  99. Dorsal Interossei
    Origin: Adjacent sides of metarsals 1-5

    Insertion: first: medial side of proximal phalanx of 2nd digit; second to fourth: lateral sides of 2nd to 4th digits

    Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

    Action: abducts digits and flex metatarsophalangeal joints

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