Biology Lect 2

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laskiru
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58844
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Biology Lect 2
Updated:
2011-01-09 22:31:58
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Genes
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Genes
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  1. Prokaryote DNA
    • circular
    • double stranded
    • 1 copy of genes
    • do not have non coding DNA (introns)
  2. Purines
    • 2 ring structures
    • Pure As Gold (Adenine, Guanine)
  3. Replication
    • DNA --> DNA
    • semi conservative (sense and antisense strands), semidiscontinous (Okazaki frags), bidirectional, precise (DNA polymerase proofreads)
    • helicase --> RNA polymerase --> DNA polymerase --> remove primers --> DNA ligase
  4. Transcription
    • DNA --> RNA
    • occurs in nucleus or mitochondria
    • most gene regulation is at the transcription level
    • only the sense (-) strand is transcribed
    • initiation factors --> RNA polymerase --> elongation --> builds in a 5' to 3' direction --> termination sequence
    • RNA polymerase does not proofread
  5. Operon
    • operator, promoter, and genes that contribute to a single prok mRNA
    • Lac operon: codes for enzymes nec. for E. coli to import and metabolize lactose in the absence of glucose
  6. Post-Transcriptional Processing
    only mRNA in proks is directly translated, the euk mRNA is looped and spliced to leave just exons
  7. Methylation
    Associated with inactivated genes
  8. Southern Blot? Northern? Western?
    • S - DNA
    • N - RNA
    • W - Protein
  9. cDNA
    reverse transcriptase is utilized to create DNA from mRNA (therefore it is just the coding region)
  10. SNPs
    the number of differences between people tells us how closely they are related
  11. RFLPs
    DNA from suspect vs. DNA from blood stain
  12. Translation
    • RNA to Protein
    • Ribosomes are constructed in the nucleolous (subunits are not joined until in cytosol)
    • Prok: 30s + 50s Euk: 40s + 60s
    • a tRNA with the 5' CAU 3' anticodon recruits methionine to P-site --> elongations (A --> P --> E) --> termination (stop codons UAG, UGA, UAA)
  13. Genome Possibilities: How many possible codons are there?
    • Possibilities Positions
    • 43 = 64
    • there are 4 possible neucs and three positions in each codon
  14. Cell Life Cycle
    • G1: cell has just split, focus on RNA and protein synth
    • Check Pt: size and favourable conditions?
    • S: DNA replication
    • G2: organelles dup, RNA and protein synth continue
    • Check Pt: MPF?
    • M: Mitosis or Meiosis
  15. Mitosis
    • PMAT:
    • Prophase: condensation (chromatin to chromosome)
    • Metaphase: alignment
    • Anaphase: sis chroms split, ends with cytokinesis
    • Telophase: nuclear membrane reforms, chromosomes decondense, and cytokinesis continues
  16. Meiosis
    • produces 4 haploid gametes with 23 chromosomes
    • P1: chroms line up and crossing over occurs
    • M1: tetrads align along plate
    • A1: seperates homologues from their partners
    • T1: cytokinesis results in secondary gamete cells (haploid)
  17. Primary Gamete
    2n, 46 chromosomes
  18. Chromatin
    • the entire DNA/protein complex
    • euchromatin is uncoiled and can be transcribed
    • euchromatin is only coiled during nuclear division
  19. Mutations
    • Nonsense: results in a stop codon
    • Missense: results in a non stop codon
    • both are due to nucleotide replacement

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