Middle Ages Review Sheet Part 2
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Pope Greg VII
banned lay investiture. He excommunicated Henry when he attempted to have him step down from the papacy. Henry came to the castle where Gregory was staying and waited in the snow for three days. Gregory then ended his excommunication.
Was not happy when Pop Gregory VII banned lay investiture. He called a meeting of the German bishops he had appointed. With their approval, he ordered Gregory to step down from the papacy. He was excommunicated by Gregory. He stood outside the pope’s castle for three days before his excommunication was ended.
the German emperor. He was part of the Third Crusade, which was to recapture Jerusalem. This was led by three of Europe’s most powerful monarchs, including him. He drowned on the journey.
Pope Urban II
called for what he called a “holy war”, a Crusade to gain control of the Holy Land.
a Muslim leader and Kurdish warrior that had gained control of Jerusalem.
Richard the lion-hearted
the English king. He was part of the Third Crusade, which was to recapture Jerusalem. This was led by three of Europe’s most powerful monarchs, including him. He argued with Philip and Richard went home.
In Germany, Hildegard of Bingen, a mystic and musician, founded a Benedictine convent. Like friars, these women lived in poverty and worked to help the poor and sick. Unlike the friars, however, women were not allowed to travel from place to place as preachers.
Francis of Assisi, an Italian, founded another order of friars, the Franciscans. Francis treated all creatures, including animals as if they were his spiritual brothers and sisters.
Dominic, a Spanish priest, founded the Dominicans, one of the earliest orders of friars. Friars took vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience. They preached to the poor throughout Europe’s towns and cities. Because Dominic emphasized the importance of study, many Dominicans were scholars.
merchant-class town dwellers. As trade expanded they did not like the interference (of the feudal lords, who used their authority to levy fees, taxes, and rents) in their trade and commerce. They organized themselves and demanded privileges.
a scholar that argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument. He wrote the Summa Theologicae. He and his fellow scholars used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate many issues of their time. Their teachings on law and government influenced the thinking of western Europeans.
were schoolmen. Aquinas and his fellow scholars who met at the great universities were scholastics. They used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate many issues of their time.
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, who invaded Britain. William claimed the English crown and invaded England with a Norman army. His rival was Harold Godwinson, who he fought for the crown. William won, and after his victory declared all England his personal property. He kept about one-fifth of England for himself. He unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized government in England.
William the Conqueror’s descendant. He was the English king and married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France. This marriage brought Henry a large territory in France. He strengthened the royal courts of justice by sending royal judges to every part of England at least once a year. He also introduced the use of the jury in English courts.
an undistinguished duke from the middle of France. The Capet family ruled only a small territory, but at its heart stood Paris. Hugh Capet began the Capetian dynasty of French kings. He was a weak ruler, but time and geography favored him and his descendants.
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