APUSH Unit 4 IDS

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APUSH Unit 4 IDS
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  1. • “Manifest Destiny” –
    Slogan, coined in 1845 by John O’Sullivan, used to justify and account for territorial growth. Expressed conviction that America’s superior institutions and culture gave Americans a God-given right to spread their civilization across the entire continent
  2. ● Stephen Austin–
    American impresario (contractors) who called for settlers in Texas. Assisted in putting down rebellion in 1826. Got people to settle in Texas.
  3. ● TX War for Independence–
    Began in 1835. Sam Houston becomes commander in chief . Santa Anna comes to crush rebellion with army of conscripts. Santa Anna won at first, but carelessness was undoing and Texans won their Independence on April 21, 1836 at San Jacinto and later asked to join the US
  4. ● Santa Anna –
    Mexican dictator and general in 1835. Captured at San Jacinto and forced to sign Texas’s treaty of independence
  5. ● Alamo -
    Mission at San Antonio, TX. 13-day siege by Santa Anna that ended with a bloody battle where all but 2 texans there died. Desire for revenge caused the Texans to be victorious at San Jacinto
  6. ● San Jacinto –
    Battle in 1836 where Houston led the Texans to attack Santa anna’s army during siesta. Captured Santa Anna, won the war for Texas’s Independence.
  7. ● Sam Houston -
    onetime governor of TN and army officer, appointed the commander in chief of Texan army. Became President of the Lone Star of Republic. Asked to be annexed to the US.
  8. ● Annexation of TX – joint resolution – Pres. Tyler –
    1845, TX was annexed in the last months of Tyler’s presidency b/c the election of 1844 had shown that people supported the annexation. It was done by congressional joint resolution which was easier to pass than a treaty and meant that TX didn’t get to make any terms. Annexation of TX added another slave state, and led to war with Mexico.
  9. ● Election of 1844 –
    • The Democratic Candidate, James Polk of TN who called for annexation of TX and occupation of Oregon, won. TX annexation was the big issue. The Whig candidate was Henry Clay. Showed people wanted the TX annexation
  10. Reoccupation of TX and OR -
    Texas was annexed by Tyler in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
  11. ● 54-40 or Fight -
    Slogan that Polk campaigned on, though he didn’t really want a war with GB. Privately, he decided to settle for the 49th parallel. 1846 – Polk blames the fact that he settled on Congress by forwarding the British proposal to the Senate. Got Polk elected.
  12. ● James Polk -
    elected in 1844 by promising to annex TX and get Oregon. Polk convinced Tyler to annex TX, got GB to give up OR, declared war on Mexico, got the Mexican Cession land
  13. ● Slidell Mission -
    John Slidell was a secret agent sent by Polk in 1845 to get Mexico to accept a Rio Grande Boundary and to purchase Upper CA and NM. Failed b/c the government refused to even see him. When it failed, Polk got pissed off and decided to use force to get what he wanted.
  14. ● Rio Grande, disputed Territory -
    Texas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles north of the Rio Grande. U.S. and Mexico agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement, sending Taylor and his troops south of the Rio Grande (b/c the Slidell Mission failed). This caused Mexico to declare defensive war.
  15. • General Zachary Taylor -
    Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk’s orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor’s forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero, who later became president.
  16. • Mexican War -
    Causes: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840's and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott.

    Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
  17. • Spot resolutions -
    Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory. They were a direct challenge to the validity of the president's words, and representative of the political power struggle between Whigs and Democrats.
  18. • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    – 1848 – Negotiated by Trist, this treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest. The US guaranteed the political and civil rights of all the former Mexican citizens. It ended the Mexican War.
  19. • Mexican Cession
    – 1848 - Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago) US got all the land, though it didn’t want the citizens. The land was used to further Manifest Destiny and US expansion.
  20. Caroline and Creole Affairs –
    1837 -A group of Canadian malcontents determined to free Canada from British rule made looting forays into Canada from an island being supplied by the US ship Caroline. A party led by a Canadian loyalist Colonel McNab attacked the Caroline, burned the vessel, killed an black American on board, and pushed the remains over the Niagra Falls. The US exaggerated this to make the public outraged against GB.

    1841 - The Creole Affair involved slaves, aboard the slave ship Creole, who mutinied and killed a crewman, then sailed to the Bahamas, where the British let them all go. The U.S. wanted the slaves back, but Britain refused, b/c GB had ended slavery by then. Reignited the attack on slavery by northern abolitionists, generated diplomatic tension between Great Britain and the United States.
  21. • Aroostook War –
    1839 - Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory. Resulted in a mutually accepted border between the state of Maine and Canada.
  22. John Jacob Astor -
    (1763-1848) His American fur company (est. 1808) rapidly became the dominant fur trading company in America. Helped finance the War of 1812. First millionaire in America (in cash, not land). used the money to buy and develop large tracts of Manhattan real estate. Supported the presidential campaign of Henry Clay.
  23. • Oregon Territory
    - The territory comprised what are now the states of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly under the Convention of 1818. The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818 and established the British-American boundary at the 49th parallel.
  24. • Election of 1848 -
    Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Western Territories. Taylor won b/c the Free Soil Party took votes away from the Dems.
  25. • Wilmot Proviso -
    When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. This led to great debates over the Wilmot Proviso because people took sides based on north and south not political parties. Those who supported the party either did so because they thought slavery was wrong or were northern white farmers looking to move westward and did not want competition with southern slaveholders or free blacks looking for land. John C. Calhoun strongly opposed the party. He called the Wilmot Proviso and Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
  26. • Joseph Smith -
    Joseph Smith (1805-1844) Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
  27. • Bringham Young, Mormons, Great Salt Lake -
    1847 - Brigham Young led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order, group identity. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
  28. • Gadsden Purchase -
    1853 - After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsen, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern transcontinental railroad because the land was good and flat. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
  29. • Hegemony -
    Domination or leadership - especially the predominant influence of one state over others. Northern states seemed to be dominating Southern states. This is one of the reasons the south seceded.
  30. • Samuel Slater
    (1768-1835) When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America. Tons of Slater modeled factories were then built in the US which led to a major increase in industry .
  31. • “transportation revolution”
    Americans in the early 1800s traveled more frequently, more widely, and in more different ways than they had only a few decades earlier. Now people could travel by boat at and by railroad and by the safe and smooth roads that were built. Because of this Americans traveled more widely and communicating with each other was alot easier.
  32. • Eli Whitney, interchangeable parts
    1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government. The manufacturing of machines was now much easier which resulted in faster r machine construction=more machines and machines that were easily fixed which=less expensive if a machine broke.
  33. • Cotton gin 1798 -
    • He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
    • • Erie Canal 1825 -
    • The Erie canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The canal was approved in 1817 with the support of New York’s Governor, Dewitt Clinton. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West. This is important because trade goods were now easily transferable to the west and western farmers now had a reliable market. It greatly boosted the American economy. It also connected the East and West promoting unity.
  34. • National Road
    The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.Stimulated trade and communication.
  35. • Commonwealth V Hunt
    1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members. This is important because the US government was once again proving their superiority to states by disagreeing with their judgements
  36. • Lowell Factory
    The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.These factories promoted industry and also changed the role of women because women came to work in this factory.
  37. • 10 hour movement
    Labor unions advocated a 10-hour workday. Previously workers had worked from sun up to sundown. This is important because it shows how relationships between masters and workers were deteriorating and the fact that these issues were unresolved led to many conflicts.
  38. • Clipper ships
    Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. They were developed in the second quarter of the 1800s. These ships were unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western U.S.
  39. • Robert Fulton, steamships
    A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine. This is important because steamboats proved an important resource in transporting items across canals and in trade.
  40. • Samuel Morse – telegraph
    Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications. This is important because communications helped to unify americans as a whole and kept families in close contact
  41. • Independent Treasury System
    Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk. This is important because it shows how money was handled by the states now. It gave states more rights because now they were in control of the money.
  42. • American Colonization Society
    Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa. This shows how discrimination against blacks still existed and flourished. It caused tensions between northerners and southerners because it was discrimination
  43. • Abolition-
    The fight to end slavery in the United States. Headed by many prominent activists. *The pressure and impact from the Abolitionists on the American government led to the elimination of slavery in the U.S.
  44. • Sectionalism-
    Division between the Northern anti-slave states and the Southern slave states based of based on disagreement about slavery. *Sectionalism and the loyalty people felt to either the slave or free states was the start of tension between the north and south, this tension eventually led to the Civil War.
  45. • William Lloyd Garrison-
    Abolitionist, author of the radical journal, The Liberator, and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Was very outspoken about his beliefs in the moral issues of slavery . Persuaded many people to back the cause of abolition through his writings and spoken word. *Writings and speeches help persuade many to back abolition. This support helped bring about the abolition of slavery.
  46. • The Liberator-
    An anti-slavery pro abolition newspaper written by William Loyd Garrison. Had a relatively small circulation but gained national notoriety because of Garrisons strong arguments. Spurred much debate between those who were pro-slavery and those who were anti-slavery. *Gained much support for abolition. Also made tension between pro-slave and anti-slave stronger.
  47. • American Anti-Slavery Society-
    Founded in 1833 by William Loyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Against slavery. Had a huge number of members. *This organization was another thing that was able to a ton of support for the abolition of slavery.
  48. • The Grimke Sisters-
    Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. *Grimke sisters gained support for the abolition of slavery and for women’s rights.
  49. • Elijah Lovejoy-
    An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists. *His death signifies the turbulent times and violence that the abolitionist movement brought with it.
  50. • Wendell Phillips-
    An orator and associate of Garrison, Phillips was an influential abolitionist lecturer. *Influenced many to support an/or join the abolitionist movement.
  51. • Nat Turner’s Insurrection-
    Virginia, 1831- a group of 60 black slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed that he was sent by god to free his people, revolted killing almost 60 whites. *Led to the snesational manhunt in which 100 black slaves were killed. Also led to Slave holders strengthening their securities on their slaves and more support for fugitive slave laws.
  52. • Sojourner Truth-
    Name used by Isabelle Baumfree. She was the first black woman to openly campaign against slavery. One of the best known abolitionists. *Set the precedent for women campaigning for their rights.
  53. • Gabriel Prosser-
    In 1800 Prosser planned a revolt, he wanted to take over Virginia and make it a state solely for slaves. He gathered 1000 slaves. They planned to attack Richmond, but the roads leading into the city were flooded, so their attack was delayed. A slave owner found out about the plan and 25 men, including Prosser, were hanged. *His death and the deaths of the other twenty five men signify the turbulent times and violence that the abolitionist movement brought with it.
  54. • Frederick Douglass-
    A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star. *Because he was such a charismatic and enticing speaker he was able to amass a large and faithful following of people who began following the abolitionist movement.
  55. • “King Cotton”-
    Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!". *The fact that the South taunted the North with mentions of the North’s economic dominance on the South’s cotton only irritated the Northerners , making the tension between the North and South even greater.
  56. • John Sutter-
    A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush. *Instrumental in the early settlement of California.
  57. • 49ers-
    Easterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849. *The flock of people to California during the Gold Rush set the early standard for the huge population and political prominence of the state in the future.
  58. • California applies for admission as a state -
    Spurred by the rapid population increase in 1849, due to the Gold Rush, California was soon qualified for statehood. Californians were so eager to join the union that they created and ratified a constitution and elected a government before receiving approval from Congress. California was split down the middle by the Missouri Compromise line, so there was a conflict over whether it should be slave or free, however, most of California’s inhabitants were young, single men looking for wealth via gold from the Gold Rush. Cities began to form, and thus slavery did not really stick in most of California. However, California entering the Union as a free state would upset the balance. This discrepancy led to the Compromise of 1850.
  59. • Compromise of 1850 -
    Last attempt to keep slavery out of politics. Compromise that admitted California as a free state, which tipped the scale of favor toward the North, with fourteen abolitionist states against the South’s thirteen. The slave trade in the District of Columbia was abolished. The states of Utah and New Mexico were opened to slavery only through popular sovereignty, and this “loaded dice” of free states greatly angered the South, who was now desperately trying to retain that “sacred balance” in the Senate. So to try to curb anger in the South the Compromise also established tougher fugitive slave laws. This Compromise was originally proposed by Henry Clay as part of the Omnibus Bill, but when it failed Stephen Douglas had Congress vote on Clay’s resolutions individually creating the Compromise. The Compromise was a move by Republicans to start to head towards the rid of slavery. However, its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division and, for the time, being both sides were content, which directly postpones the Civil War for another decade. Votes on it showed not only party divisions, but also North/South division, thus it led to a political realignment.
  60. • Fugitive Slave Law -
    Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which irritated the South to no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the Underground Railroad, however, it seemed to spur the Underground Railroad’s activity. The law was known as the “Bloodhound Bill,” which stirred up opposition in the North. The law stated that fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf, and that federal commissioners would receive ten dollars if the slave was not freed, and five if so. This bribe-like situation touched off an explosive chain reaction with abolitionists in the North. It led to increased violence in the North as “kidnappers” were being paid for returning former slaves.
  61. • Henry Clay (1777-1852) -
    1840’s-1850’s, important senator from Kentucky who became one of the main faces in Congress. Clay was known as the “Great Pacificator,” and came to the Senate to organize his third great compromise. Clay was also important in delaying the Civil war for as long as he could, through theses compromises between the North and the South. Clay helped heal the North/South rift (if only for a short time) by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850 via his Omnibus Bill (see Compromise of 1850).
  62. • John C. Calhoun-
    1840’s, formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator, Calhoun was another desperate Whig who attempted to also get a Whig say in office. Although Calhoun was dying of tuberculosis, he still attempted to give his say in government, and gravely persuaded his associates to completely avoid the slavery issue as long as possible, to return runaway slaves, and give the South its rights as a minority. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
  63. • Underground Railroad-
    1850’s, the railroad consisted of an informal chain of antislavery homes (white and black abolitionists) which aided slaves escaping to the free soil of the North and Canada, from the slave land of the South. The railroad became increasingly large, and many Southerners who had lost slaves pended for stronger fugitive-slave laws.
  64. • Harriet Tubman (1821-1913)
    - 1850’s, an amazing “conductor” of the Underground Railroad who rescued more than 300 slaves and brought them to Canada. Tubman was pronounced “Moses” of the leadership skills she had in saving the freedom of thousands more slaves. Tubman’s actions again brought about an increased support for a more stringent fugitive-slave law.
  65. • Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe
    - She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War. Written in 1852, it was an influential novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe(1811-1896) that changed all opinion of slavery that Northerners once had, but also created a stronger bond of sectionalism. The novel strengthened Northern unity, yet it also strengthened Southern unity that disagreed with it. Stowe’s novel was poorly written, yet still had that idea that carried throughout the North. Stowe was trying to portray the inhumanity of slavery; it did - it brought the horrors of slavery to northern commoner’s attention.
  66. • Election of 1852: end of the Whig party -
    By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party. Prior to the election, party differences became blurred (which led to a decrease in party loyalty) as both parties tried to claim the Compromise of 1850. In addition an economic prosperity left less to disagree over (remember many candidates avoided the issue of slavery). Whigs nominated Winfield Scott (over Fillmore due to internal party conflicts) and the Democrats nominated Franklin pierce. Democrats won due to the overwhelming number of Irish (Catholic) immigrants who voted Democrat. The Whig party was very weak after this election; it finally dissolved as a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
  67. • Ostend Manifesto-
    • 1854, manifesto drawn about in Ostend, Belgium, which claimed that Cuba was naturally part of the US and offered $20 million to Spain for it. If Spain refused, then it threatened the U.S. (majority being the South) would take it over by force. The effort was obviously made so that the South could form another slave state, and this too greatly angered Northern abolitionists. It was not carried through (Secretary of State Marcy rejected it) because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state. It once again shows the division between North and South as well as the US’s expansionist attitude.
  68. Kansas-Nebraska Act-
    1854, Act proposed by senator Stephen Douglas which proposed that Nebraska be cut into two separate states, Kansas and Nebraska, and that slavery would be determined in each through popular sovereignty. This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. The act outraged antislavery Northerners, and Southerners were apprehensive that the North would get another free state. In fact, Douglas thought that the climate didn’t support slave labor anyway so they both would vote free states. The result of this disagreement was a pre-Civil War in the actual state (“Bleeding Kansas”), which in turn became the stepping stone for the Civil War. It also dissolved the Whig party because they voted not as a party but as North and South, and led to the creation of the Know-Nothings and Republicans. In addition, it brought the question of slavery back to the head of politics again.
  69. • Birth of the Republican Party
    - A coalition of the Free Soil Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican Party, a liberal, anti-slavery party. The party's Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured one-third of the popular vote in the 1856 election. (The Know-Nothings (aka American Party) had their own candidate in the 1856 election, Fillmore, but they were absorbed into the Republican Party in 1856.) This party still exists today.
  70. • Stephen A. Douglass-
    1813-1861, Senator who was backed by Henry Clay, and was also known as the “Little Giant.” Douglass had a huge (Whig) role in Congress, along with Calhoun, Clay, and Webster. They advised the North and Congress to develop a more effective fugitive slave law. He was also a Liberal, and was willing to do anything to keep the Union stable. He introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
  71. • popular sovereignty-
    1840’s-1850’s, doctrine that stated that the sovereign people of the territory, under the principles of the Constitution, should themselves determine the status of slavery. This idea was thought of by Lewis Cass, and was quite successful. It removed the slavery burden from the federal government and placed it in the hands of the individual territories. It also strengthened the democratic tradition of self determination.
  72. • Thirty-six, thirty line
    - According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the 36º30' N latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
  73. • Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party -
    Democrat - James Buchanan (WON by a narrow margin). Republican - John Fremont. Know-Nothing Party - Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know-Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. (They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".) This election tested the strength of each of the two new parties. The Republican party stayed strong and absorbed the Know-Nothing Party after this election)
  74. • Dred Scott Decision (“Dred Scott v. Sandford”)-
    Supreme Court ruling in 1857 under Chief Justice Roger Taney; its 3 rulings stated: (1)Ppl of African descent were naturally inferior to whites & could not pursue American citizenship, (2)MO Compromise = unconstitutional b/c Congress possesses no right to ban slavery from a territory, (3) Slaves = private property & can’t be taken away from owners w/o due process; infuriated Northerners b/c limited few rights blacks still held, hinted at permission of slavery in North, granted slaveowners permission to bring their “property” w/ them to new territories; threw attention back to issue of slavery after yrs of “settling the conflict” & increased sectional hostilities
  75. • Chief Justice Taney-
    5th Chief Justice of USA; most remembered for Dred Scott Decision among other decisions; very close with Andrew Jackson (they possessed similar beliefs); a Southerner who upheld his fugitive slave laws which contributed to the Civil War
  76. • Bleeding Kansas, “Kansas Border War”-
    proxy war btwn Northerners & Southerners over issue of slavery in US; caused by replacement of MO Compromise by KS-NE Act of 1854 resulting in immigration en masse to KS; violence ensued btwn proslavery Border Ruffians & anti-slavery Free-Staters, after 4yrs of violence, Free-Staters won; KS’s violence precipitated Civil War
  77. • Pottawatomie Massacre-
    In reaction to sacking of Lawrence (pro-slavery Ruffians attacked properties of free-state settlers), John Brown & small band of abolitionists to proslavery settlement in Pottawatomie Creek (KS) & killed 5 members; assisted in making KS Border War become a national issue -> Bleeding KS (minor civil war)
  78. • John Brown’s & Harper’s Ferry-
    abolitionist John Brown lead 1st antislavery attack in VA 1859 when he seized US Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry & tried to end slavery by slaying masters and inspiring slave revolt; defeated by detachment of US Marines (lead by Col. Robert E. Lee); Brown found guilty in court for disturbing commonwealth of VA & was hanged, becoming martyr for North & symbolized Northern imposing threat to Southerners (intensified tensions)
  79. • Sumner Brooks affair-
    a dispute on the Senate Floor btwn radical Repub. Charles Sumner & Dem. Preston Brooks over slavery issue in the new gained territories; Sumner attacked the KS-ME Act, denouncing the act as a “crime against KS” & attacking Brook’s uncle (an author of the Act); Brooks severely beat Sumner on the head with a cane, crippling Sumner who becomes a martyr to Repub. (his vacant senate chair of 3 yrs -> symbol of free speech & resistance to slavery); Sumner -> hero to North, Brooks -> hero to South & tensions btwn 2 sides intensified
  80. • Lecompton Constitution(1857)-
    2nd of 4 proposed constitutions for KS; written in response to anti-slavery Topeka Constitution, a group of KS slave-holders wrote the Lecompton Constitution suggested admission of KS into Union as slave state; both Topeka & Lecompton Constitution put up to poll for ppl of KS; both rejected by supporters of opposing faction; constitution’s tensions brought to light in Congress and became a deciding factor for election of 1860; Lincoln’s victory b/c of Lecompton -> major stimulus for SC secession & Civil War
  81. • Panic of 1857-
    financial panic in USA caused by declining int’l econ & overexpansion of domestic econ.(overconfident citizens in their prev. prosperous econ seized opportunity to expand, too much = falling market prices -> panic); began w/ failure of OH Life Insurance Co. & rapidly spread as other businesses & railroad industry started collapsing, proper recovery did not occur until Amer Civil War; affected industrial east & wheat belt more than south which lead to southern belief that northern econ depended on southern subsistence; this belief + slavery tension -> promoted southern secession (belief “they’d listen to us b/c they’re desperate & rely on us”)
  82. • Lincoln Douglas Debates of 1858-
    series of 7 debates btwn Repub Abraham Linclon & Dem. Stephan Douglas over the Senate seat in IL; the debates revolved around central theme of slavery & on esp. important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, Dred Scott Decision, Lecompton Constitution; though Lincoln lost the seat to Douglas, his stance on the topics (& the wide-spread popularity of their debates) pivoted Lincoln with his victory in 1860 Pres. Election
  83. • Freeport Doctrine-
    Douglas’s stance on slavery in new territories articulated in 1 of Lincoln Douglass debates, proposing that popular sovereignty should dictate whether it becomes free/slave state & not be forced upon the ppl aga. their will through Congress; Doctrine gains Douglas’s victory for IL Senate; however, it embittered some Southern slaveowners who embraced the idea of forced slavehood (leading to eventual split in Dem. Party in 1860 & contributed to Douglas’s loss at 1860 Elections)
  84. • Lincoln’s “House Divided” Speech-
    Lincoln’s stance on slavery in USA announced in Springfield in 1 of Lincoln Douglas Debates; Lincoln utilized Bible’s quote “A house divided aga. itself cannot stand” to explain his opinion that for Union to survive, it either has to be all-free or all-slave. As long as North and South held such distinct opinions, as long as these issue permeated every political issue of the time, the Union could not function as a coalition of cooperative states; lead to his loss in IL Senate Elections, but explain his willingness to fight in Civil War
  85. • Election of 1860-
    election that set nation for Civil War after most of 1850s spent questioning slavery & state’s rights; pol. debates of this elec. regarded slavery, bringing dispute to pivotal limelight; Lincoln’s victory = eminent b/c Dem. Party split into 2 factions(north/south), thus Repub Party & Lincoln rose to power; Lincoln wins w/o support of a single Southern state thus “misrepresented south” cried secession 1 month later
  86. • Democratic Party Conventions-
    following a fragmented official Demo. Party Convention (where Party elects a represen. to campaign aga. other party candidates), 2 more pres. nominating conventions took place: Charleston Convention & Baltimore Convention; Charleston represented Northern Dem. (favored a moderate pro-slavery ideal esp. through popular sovereignty) who elected Stephan Douglas; Baltimore represented Southern Dem. (favored Dred Scott Decision of white superiority)who elected John Breckinridge; even if Party didn’t split, Repub. still carried majority votes, BUT split -> major handicap for many states, reducing Dem. popular vote; division of Party btwn North & South over slavery, becomes problematic for N. Dem during course of war b/c they become part of Union yet they disagree with war’s cause
  87. • John Bell-
    After collapse of Whig Party, Bell attempted to preserve Whig Party in another form thus founding Constitutional Union Party (majority of members in border & middle states); as a major advocate of a united Union, he urged middle states to join North
  88. • Crittenden Compromise(1860)-
    A desperate measure to prevent Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden; bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, immediately rejected it (b/c elected on platform that opposed expansion of slavery), Lincoln’s immediate rejection triggered Civil War (South believes “he doesn’t care for what WE want”)
  89. • Border states-
    refers to slave states that didn’t declare secession before April 1861, but most frequently refers to 4 states that did NOT secede, but were slave states (DE, MA, KY, MO); WV included b/c broke away from a Confed. VA to join as new state in Union; these states did not undergo Reconstruction
  90. • South’s advantages in CW-
    Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, could export cotton for $, fighting a defensive war (only needed to keep the North out of their states to win), had nation's best military leaders, & most of existing military equipment and supplies
  91. • North’s advantages in CW-
    Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies (eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage)
  92. • Battle at Fort Sumter(1861)-
    Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War: South Carolina had seceded from the Union, demanding that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities; Major Robert Anderson(Union officer) concentrated his units at Fort Sumter(believed stronger defense would delay attack from SC militia); when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused -> Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered; Congress declared war on Confederacy the next day; demonstrated Confed. mil. superiority(reason why Lincoln cautious w/ war tactics)
  93. • 1st Battle at Bull Run-
    1st major battle of civil war which demonstrated the confusion & ill-preparation of both sides at start of war: At Bull Run, a creek near VA, Confed. soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington, Confed. didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it; blood, gore, stupor lead to realization that war would be bloodier (copious casualties) & longer than expected
  94. • Battle of Monitor & Merrimac/Virginia (“Battle of Hampton Roads”)
    -naval battle part of Confed.’s effort to break Union blockade in 1862; after long battle w/ no significant damage inflicted on either side, both naval warships(CSS Monitor & CSS VA)returned to home base, and battle ended as draw (viewed as victory to ea. sides)& blockade remains unbroken; received worldwide attention as it promoted advanced naval warship construction in foreign navies
  95. • Lee, Jackson-
    Robert E. Lee became the commanding general of the Confederate army in the American Civil War. General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.
  96. • Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox-
    Battle sites of the Civil War. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Vicksburg - besieged by Grant and surrendered after six months. Antietam - turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln. Bloodiest battle of war, end of Lee’s invasion into North. Appomattox - Lee surrendered to Grant.
  97. • Jefferson Davis-
    Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. He agreed that each state was sovereign and had an unquestionable right to secede from the Union. unable to find a strategy to stop the larger, more powerful and better organized Union. His diplomatic efforts failed to gain recognition from any foreign country, and he paid little attention to the collapsing Confederate economy. lacked support from a political party. he was charged with treason, though not tried, and stripped of his eligibility to run for public office. His ineffectiveness is one reason why the south lost.
  98. • Cotton v. Wheat-
    Cotton was a cash crop and could be sold for large amounts of money. Wheat was mainly raised to feed farmers and their animals. The North had to choose which to grow.
  99. • Copperheads-
    Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get him.
  100. • Suspension of habeas corpus-
    Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
  101. • Conscription and draft riots-
    The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.
  102. • Emancipation Proclamation-
    September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
  103. • Election of 1864-
    Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan (“peace candidate”). Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had fired McClellan from his position in the war.)
  104. • Clara Barton-
    Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
  105. • Lincoln’s 10% plan-
    Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
  106. • Assassination of Lincoln-
    April 14, 1865 While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln was dead.
  107. • John Wilkes Booth-
    • An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
  108. Ex parte milligan- 1866 -
    Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshal law. Military jurisdiction was limited.
  109. • Radical Republicans-
    After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
  110. • Wade-Davis Bill
    • 1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing. Was a radical reconstruction plan for the South
  111. Joint Resolution on Reconstruction
    Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee of Fifteen). Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans. Also investigated changes in the South. Documented bad conditions for freedmen 1866
  112. • Reconstruction Acts
    • 1867 - Total of three acts. Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with broad powers to maintain order and protect civil and property rights. Defined a new process for readmitting a state: qualified voters would elect delegates to state constitutional conventions, would write new constitutions guaranteeing black suffrage. After, ratified elections held to elect governor and state legislature. When the state ratifies the 14th Amendment the state’s representatives to Congress accepted, completing readmission to the Union.
  113. State suicide theory
    • The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide. This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South. Formulated by Sumner
  114. Conquered territory theory
    • Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part of the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however they like.
  115. Black codes
    • Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments. The former southern aristocracy’s goal was to restore the old plantation order & appropriate race relationships. Southerners believed the key to reestablishing white dominance was the black codes. Many of the qualified rights guaranteed by the codes (such as testifying in court) were passed only to induce the federal government to withdrawal the remaining troops from the South. Southerners believed this was crucial because in many places marauding groups of whites were assaulting and terrorizing virtually defenseless freedmen- freedmen clearly needed protection & right to testify in courts against whites. Crucial provisions of black codes intended to regulate freedmen’s economic status.
  116. Texas V White
    1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.
  117. • Thaddeus Stevens
    A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress. More info with Sumner (below)
  118. • Charles Sumner
    The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, Sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. He and Stevens led Congressional radical Repubs & decided to assert their own policies for reconstruction. Rejected Johnson’s notion that South already reconstructed, Congress exercised its constitutional authority to decide its membership. Refused to seat new senators and representatives from old Confederate states. Established the Joint Committee on Reconstruction to investigate changes in the South.
  119. • Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)
    A Unionist Tennessee Democrat, as V.P. (nominated as VP election 1864 because Repubs wanted to show war was bipartisan effort) when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president. In 1865 he issued 2 proclamations setting forth a reconstruction program- rested on claim that southern states had never left the Union. When Congress passed the civil rights bill and extended Freedmen’s Bureau, Johnson vetoed both & called opponents traitors. His actions drove moderates to radicals and Congress passed both bills over veto but was watered down because by weakening power of enforcement. Urged states to reject 14th Amendment. Tenure of Office Act (designed to prevent Johnson from removing Sec of War Stanton) limited presidential appointment powers. Johnson then vetoed reconstruction acts, limited activities of military commanders in South and removed officials sympathetic to Congress. Investigated and charged with usurpations of power but House of Rep defeated impeachment resolutions. 1867 Johnson dismissed Stanton & ordered him to leave- House then approves impeachment resolution- mostly violations of Tenure of Office Act. But impeachment failed (barely). Impeachment crisis revealed that most Repubs more interested in protecting themselves then then freedmen and interested in punishing Johnson more then South.
  120. • Freedmen’s Bureau
    1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs. Issued emergency food rations, helped homeless, established medical facilities, provided funds to relocate freedmen and refugees, helped people search for family, get married and made sure trials were fair. Responsible for educating former slaves in schools staffed by blacks and idealistic northerners. Largest task was serving as an employment agency- tending to black’s economic well-being. Agents often accused of partisan Repub politics, corruption, etc to blacks by local whites. Although helpful in finding work for freedmen, more often defending white landowners by telling blacks to obey orders, trust employers and sign/live by bad contracts. Did accomplish a lot though. Economic failures of the Freedmen’s Bureau, symbolic of entire congressional program, forced freedmen into new economic dependency on former masters.
  121. • General Oliver Howard
    • Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau. Wanted to uphold values of self-help, minimal government interference in market, sanctity of private property, contractual obligations and white superiority.
  122. KKK
    White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915. Many poor southern whites joined. Was one of several secret organizations that used force and violence against blacks and white Repubs to drive them from power. Inspiration for the Ku Klux Klan Act which declared illegal secret organizations that used disguise and coercion to deprive others of equal protection of the laws. Committee created to investigate KKK
  123. • Civil Rights Act 1866 -
    Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
  124. • 13th Amendment-
    1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
  125. • 14th Amendment and its provisions-
    1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants. Was the central issue of the 1866 midterm election. Was the most significant act of the Reconstruction era. Sought to provide permanent constitutional protection of civil rights of freedmen by defining them as citizens. All people guaranteed equal protection of the law and states prohibited from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without due process. Also guaranteed black male suffrage in South by making blacks whole people eligible to vote. Denied leaders of the Confederacy the right to hold national/state political office, repudiated Confederate debt, and denied claims of compensation to former slave owners. Johnson urged states to reject this Amendment; 10 immediately did.
  126. • 15th Amendment-
    Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage. Congress gave blacks the vote but not the land- opposite priority of what freedmen wanted. North gave them vote & not land because northern business interests looking to develop in southern industry & invest in southern land- liked the prospect of a large pool of propertyless black workers. Congressional moderation left freedmen economically weak as they faced challenge of freedmen.
  127. ● Tenure of Office Act -
    March 3, 1867, enacted over the veto of President Andrew Johnson, denied the President of the United States the power to remove anyone who had been appointed by a past President without the advice and consent of the United States Senate
  128. ● Impeachment -
    To bring charges against a public official (like the president). Johnson was impeached, but was saved from being taken out of office by one vote.
  129. ● Chief Justice Chase –
    • didn’t like slavery, one of Chase's first acts as Chief Justice was to admit John Rock as the first African-American attorney to argue cases before the Supreme Court. Decided Texas v. White (permanent union), presided over impeachment trial of Johnson
  130. Sec of War Stanton -
    • served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during the Civil War; effective management helped organize the resources of the North and guide the Union to victory; Stanton remained as the Secretary of War under the new President Andrew Johnson during the first years of Reconstruction. opposed the lenient policies of Johnson towards the former Confederate States. Johnson's attempt to dismiss Stanton led the House of Representatives to impeach him.
  131. Scalawags and carpetbaggers
    - scalawag was a nickname for southern whites who supported Reconstruction following the Civil War; "carpetbaggers" was a term Southerners gave to Northerners who moved to the South during the Reconstruction era.
  132. ● Purchase of Alaska –
    1867, negotiated btwn Seward and Russian minister to the US, Eduard de Stoeckl, for $7.2 million.
  133. ● Sec of State Seward –
    (served from 1861 to 1869) opposed spread of slavery, led the purchase of Alaska,
  134. ● Napolean III -
    Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew. Supported the Confederacy and wanted to recognize it but couldn’t w/o GB’s support
  135. ● Monroe Doctrine -
    stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention
  136. ● Ulysses S Grant –
    elected in 1868. Commander during civil war that led Union to victory. During Reconstruction, Grant remained in command of the Army and implemented the Congressional plans to reoccupy the South and hold new elections in 1867 with black voters. This gave Republicans control of the Southern states. As president, he led Reconstruction by signing and enforcing civil rights laws and fighting Ku Klux Klan violence, helped rebuild the Republican Party in the South, an effort that resulted in the election of African Americans to Congress and state governments.
  137. ● Election of 1876 -
    Samuel J. Tilden (Dem) outpolled Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to Hayes's 165, with 20 votes uncounted. These twenty electoral votes were in dispute in three states: (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina); each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was declared illegal (as an "elected or appointed official") and replaced. The twenty disputed electoral votes were ultimately awarded to Hayes after a bitter legal and political battle, giving him the victory.
  138. ● Compromise of 1877 –
    known as Corrupt Bargain; informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election and ended Congressional Reconstruction; Hayes would be president over Tilden if Hayes would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in south.
  139. ● Solid South -
    electoral support of the Southern United States for the Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from the end of the Reconstruction to the middle of the Civil Rights era.
  140. ● Sharecropping -
    a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land; a response to economic upheaval caused by the emancipation of slaves and disenfranchisement of poor whites
  141. ● Segregation -
    The separation of blacks and whites, mostly in the South, in public facilities, transportation, schools, etc.

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