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what are the prefixes for the alkanes, from 1 to 12?
meth-, eth-, prop-, but-, pent-, hex-, hept-, oct-, non-, dec-, undec, dodec.
what are the 5 steps to name alkanes (IUPAC)?
- 1.find the longest chain
- 2.number the chain so the lowest set of numbers is obtained for the substituents
- 3.name and alphabetize the substituents
- 4.assign # to each substituents
- 5.complete the name
in case of an "en-ol" which carbon receives the lowest number?
the carbon attached to the alcohol group
what is a diol?
a molecule with 2 OH groups
in case of an "en-one" which carbon gets the lowest number?
the carbonyl carbon
what type of compound does a -COOH group denote?
what are the common names of the following:
methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid
formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid
name the prefix and suffix of the following:
- 1.carboxy- / -oic acid
- 2.alkoxycarbonyl- / -oate
- 3.halocarbonyl- / -oyl halide
- 4.amido- /-amide
- 5.cyano-/ -nitrile
- 6.oxo- / -al
- 7.oxo- / -one
- 8.hydroxy- / -ol
- 9.sulfhydryl- / -thiol
- 10.amino- / -amine
- 11.alkoxy- / -ether
- 12.alkylthio- / -sulfide
- 14.azido-/ -azide
what is a structural isomer?
same chemical formula but different atomic arrangement
what is stereoisomers?
compounds that differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms.
order the following conformations of n-butane according to energy levels (low to high): gauche, anti, eclipsed, total eclipsed.
anti, gauche, eclipsed, totally eclipsed
what are geometric isomers?
molecules differ with respect to the spatial relationship of substituents around a double bond
what is a chiral molecule?
it is not superimposable upon its mirror image
what are enantiomers?
chiral molecules that are non superimposable mirror images of each other
what is a dextrorotatory (+) compound?
it rotates polarized light to the right (clockwise)
what is a racemic mixture?
it contains equal amounts of both enantiomers
what are diastereomers?
stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other
how does increasing molecular weight affect the boiling point and melting point of an alkane?
how does increased branching affect the boiling points of an alkane
what are 3 steps of halogenation reaction?
initiation, propagation, termination
how many steps are involved in Sn1 rxn? what are they
2 steps. first molecule dissociates into a carbocation and a leaving group, then nucleophile combines with the carbocation.
how can Sn1 rxn be increased
- 1.stabilizing the carbocation by increasing substitution and using a highly polar solvent
- 2.use a better leaving group (weak base)
which type of rxn is favored (Sn1 or Sn2):
i.polar protic solvent
ii.polar aprotic solvent
iii.methyl or 1o alkyl halide
iv.3o alkyl halide
which form of alkene has a higher melting point (cis or trans)
trans, due to its symmetry
which form of an alkene has a higher boiling point (cis or trans)
cis, due to its polarity
what is Huckel's rule?
an aromatic compound has (4n+2) pi electrons, where n is an integer
are the following activating or deactivating? o/p director or m director?
5.F, Cl, Br, I
- 1.de/ m
- 2.act/ o-p
- 3.act/ o-p
- 4.de/ m
- 5.de/ o-p
- 6.de/ m
- 7.act/ o-p
- 8.de/ m
- 9.act/ o-p
- 10. act/ o-p
do alcohols have higher or lower boiling point than analogous alkanes? why?
higher, because alcohol can hydrogen bond
name 3 types of rxn to synthesize alcohol
addition, substitution, recduction
how does boiling points of an aldehyde or ketone compare with its analogous alkane? alcohol?
- higher than alkane
- lower than alcohol