Chemistry Vocab.

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hoggdav1
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58916
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Chemistry Vocab.
Updated:
2011-01-10 01:19:53
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vocab
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  1. Matter
    Physical material of the universe
  2. Property
    Any characteristic that allows us to recognize types of matter.
  3. Elements
    Basic/Elementary substances. 117 known.
  4. Atoms
    Building blocks of matter.
  5. Molecules
    Two or more atoms that are joined together in specific shapes.
  6. Molecules with their corresponding colors.
    • Red: Oxygen
    • Dark Gray: Carbon
    • White: Hydrogen
  7. States of Matter
    Solid, Liquid, Gas
  8. Gas
    No fixed volume or shape. Is compressable.
  9. Liquid
    Distinct volume independent of its container.
  10. Solid
    Definite shape and volume.
  11. Pure Substance
    Has distinct properties and composition that does not vary from sample to sample.
  12. Compounds
    Substances that are composed of two or more elements which are chemically joined together.
  13. Mixtures
    Combinatrions of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical density.
  14. Law of constant composition/Law of definite proportions
    Elemental composition of a pure compound are always the same.
  15. Solutions
    Homogeneus mixtures
  16. Physical properties
    • Can be observed without changing the identity and composition of the substance.
    • EG: color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, hardness.
  17. Chemical properties
    • The way a substance may change, or react, to form other substances.
    • EG: flammability
  18. Intensive properties
    Temperature, melting point, density, used to identify substances. NOT DEPENDENT ON SAMPLE SIZE.
  19. Extensive properties
    • Depend on sample size.
    • EG: mass, volume
  20. Physical change
    Substance chages its physical appearance but not its composition.
  21. Chemical change/Chemical reaction
    Substance is transformed into a chemically different substance.
  22. Scientific Method
    Observatinons and experiments that find patterns, trends and laws, formulate and test hypothesis, and theories.
  23. Metric System
    Units used for scientific measurements.
  24. SI units
    • Preffered metric units.
    • For base units see table 1.4
  25. Celcius Scale
    Everyday scale of temperature in most countries.
  26. Kelvin Scale
    SI temperature scale.
  27. Density
    Property of matter that is widely used to characterize a substance. Amount of mass in a unit is the volume of the substance.
  28. Density equation
    Density = Mass/Volume
  29. Volume equation
    Volume=Mass/Density
  30. Mass Equation
    Mass = Volume*Density
  31. Precesion
    A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another.
  32. Accuracy
    How closely individual measurements agree with the correct/true value.
  33. Signifigant figures
    • All digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain one.
    • Addition and subtraction: decimal places are rounded
    • Multiplication and division: signifigant figures are counted

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