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Physical material of the universe
Any characteristic that allows us to recognize types of matter.
Basic/Elementary substances. 117 known.
Building blocks of matter.
Two or more atoms that are joined together in specific shapes.
Molecules with their corresponding colors.
- Red: Oxygen
- Dark Gray: Carbon
- White: Hydrogen
States of Matter
Solid, Liquid, Gas
No fixed volume or shape. Is compressable.
Distinct volume independent of its container.
Definite shape and volume.
Has distinct properties and composition that does not vary from sample to sample.
Substances that are composed of two or more elements which are chemically joined together.
Combinatrions of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical density.
Law of constant composition/Law of definite proportions
Elemental composition of a pure compound are always the same.
- Can be observed without changing the identity and composition of the substance.
- EG: color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, hardness.
- The way a substance may change, or react, to form other substances.
- EG: flammability
Temperature, melting point, density, used to identify substances. NOT DEPENDENT ON SAMPLE SIZE.
- Depend on sample size.
- EG: mass, volume
Substance chages its physical appearance but not its composition.
Chemical change/Chemical reaction
Substance is transformed into a chemically different substance.
Observatinons and experiments that find patterns, trends and laws, formulate and test hypothesis, and theories.
Units used for scientific measurements.
- Preffered metric units.
- For base units see table 1.4
Everyday scale of temperature in most countries.
SI temperature scale.
Property of matter that is widely used to characterize a substance. Amount of mass in a unit is the volume of the substance.
Density = Mass/Volume
Mass = Volume*Density
A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another.
How closely individual measurements agree with the correct/true value.
- All digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain one.
- Addition and subtraction: decimal places are rounded
- Multiplication and division: signifigant figures are counted
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