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2011-01-10 02:00:05

Reference Planes Directional Terms Major Regional Parts of the body- English and Latin Systems and What is located in each system "The Study of" terms and what they refer to Slang and the corrected Nomenclature
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  1. Define: Anatomy
    The science of body structure (the study of form)
  2. Name the differences humans have compared to others (6)
    • Brain size
    • Bipedal posture/locomotion
    • Opposable thumbs
    • Stereoscopic vision
    • Vocal organ
    • Crooked teeth
  3. Sagital Plane (Planum Sagittalis)
    Seporates the body into Right and Left
  4. Frontal (Coronal) Plane [plantum frontalis/coronalis]
    Seporates the body into front and back
  5. Transverse Plane [planum transersus]
    Seporates the body into upper and lower sections
  6. Medial [medialis] (along with Lateral)
    toward or relatively closer to the medial plane
  7. Lateral [lateralis] (along with Medial)
    away from or relatively farther from the median plane
  8. Anterior [anterior] (along with Posterior)
    toward or relatively closer to the front side of the body
  9. Posterior [posterior] (along with Anterior)
    toward or relatively closer to the backside of the body
  10. Superior [superior] (along with Inferior)
    toward or relatively closer to the top of the head
  11. Inferior [inferior] (along with Superior)
    away from or releatively further from the top of the head
  12. Proximal [proximalis] (along with Distal)
    relatively closer to the reference point
  13. Distal [distalis] (along with Proximal)
    away from or relatively further from a reference point
  14. Superficial/external [superficialis, externus] (along with deap/internal)
    near or closer to the outer aspect (surface) of the body or part
  15. Deep/internal [profundus, internus] (along with superficial/external)
    near or relatively closer to the central aspect of the body or part
  16. Dorsal [dorsalis] (along with ventral)
    toward or relatively closer to the back
  17. Ventral [ventralis] (along with dorsal)
    toward or relatively closer to the "belly"
  18. Palmar [palmaris] (along with Plantar)
    closer to the anterior aspect of the hand (the side of the palm)
  19. Plantar [plantaris] (along with palmar)
    closer to the sole (underside) of the foot (inferior side)
  20. Middle [medius]
    the very center of something-between superior/inferior, anterior/posterior, proximal/distal and superficial/deep.
  21. Intermediate [intermedius]
    a "side-to-side" position between medial and lateral structures
  22. Radial/ulnar [radialis/ulnaris]
    radial is toward the thumb side on the superior limb, and ulnar is toward the little finger of the superior limb
  23. Tibial/fibular [tibialis/fubularis]
    tibial is towards the middle of the leg, and fibular is towards the lateral side of the leg (aka the inferior limb)
  24. Longitudinal [longitudinalis] (along with Transverse)
    Parallel to the long axis of an elongated structure
  25. Transverse [transversus] (along with longituninal)
    perpendicular to the long axis on an elongated structure (side to side)
  26. Ipsilateral [ipsilateralis] (along with contralateral)
    indicates a stucture or position on the same side of the body
  27. Contralateral [contralateralis] (along with ipsilateral)
    the opposite side of the body
  28. Right [dexter]
    right side of something
  29. Left [sinister]
    Left side of something
  30. Central [centralis] (along with peripheral)
    closer to the center- similar to an explosion
  31. Peripheral [peripheralis] (along with central)
    farther from the center- away from an explosion
  32. Vertical [verticalis] (along with horizontal)
    up and down
  33. Horizontal [horizontalis] (along with lateral)
    side to side
  34. Tubulation (principal of morphology)
    a hollowness that continues from one organ to another
  35. Stratification (principal of morphology)
  36. Zygomorphism (pricipal of morphology)
    bilateral symmetry (right and left)
  37. Metamerism (principal of morphology)
    linear sequencing of structures (distal, proximal...) They are similar but not idential. Exp.- spine, fingers
  38. Cavitation (principal of morphology)
    the hollowness is not continuitus- it refers to the large hollow spaces in the body. similar to the cranial, thoracic, and abdominal cavities
  39. Head
    • Caput
    • the whole area supported by the neck
  40. Crainum
    • Cranium
    • the portion of the head that surounds the brain
  41. Forhead
    • frons
    • brow of the anterior aspect of the cranium
  42. Occiput
    • Occiput
    • posterior aspect of the head
  43. Crown
    • Vertex
    • uppermost part of the head
  44. Temple
    • tempus
    • the side of the head posterior to the eye and anterior to the ear
  45. Ear
    • auris
    • the organ of hearing and equilibruim
  46. Face
    • facies
    • include the eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and chin
  47. Eye
    • oculus
    • the visual oragan consisting of they eyeball, eyelids, and several accessory structures
  48. Nose
    • nasus
    • the anteromedian projection from the face that you breath from
  49. Mouth
    • os
    • the intial part of the digestive system
  50. Cheek
    • bucca (buk'a)
    • soft tissue below each eye
  51. chin
    • mentum
    • the inferior medial protuberance of the head
  52. Neck
    • collum
    • the structure that connects the head and the trunk
  53. Posterior aspect (nape of the neck)
    • nucha
    • the posterior aspact or "scruff" of the neck
  54. Anterior aspect of the neck
    • Cervix
    • front of the neck
  55. Trunk
    • truncus
    • the central protion of the body to which the neck and limbs attach
  56. Back
    • dorsum
    • the posterior aspect of the trunk
  57. Thorax/Chest
    • thorax/pectus
    • the superior aspect of the anterior portion of the trunk
  58. Abdomen
    • abdomen
    • the portion of the trunk immediatly inferior to the ribs
  59. Pelvis
    • pelvis
    • the portion fo the trunk inferior to the abdomen
  60. Superior Limb
    • Membrum Superioris
    • the paired upper limbs of the body
    • includes 5 major parts
  61. Deltoid region/shoulder
    • regio deltoideus
    • the portion of the superior limb which attaches to the thorax. It contains the shoulder joint
    • part of the superior limb
  62. Arm
    • brachium
    • the proximal portion of the superior limb between the shoulder and the elbow
    • part of the superior limb
  63. Elbow
    • cubitus
    • the portion of the superiour limb at the junction of the brachium and the antebrachium
    • part of the superior limb
  64. Forearm
    • antebrachium
    • the portion of the superiour limb between the elbo and the wrist
    • part of the superior limb
  65. Hand
    • manus
    • the distal portion of the superior libm beyond the forearm. it includes the wrist, medacarpus, and the digits
    • part of the superior limb
  66. Wrist
    • carpus
    • the proximal part of the hand. it contains the eight carpal bones
    • part of the superior limb and the Hand (manus)
  67. Metacarpus
    • metacarpus
    • the portion of the hand between the wrist and the digits.
    • part of the superior limb, and the Hand (manus)
  68. Digits of the Hand
    • digiti manus
    • the 5 moveable extensions forming the distal parts of the manus.
  69. First Digit or the Thumb
    digitus primus (1), pollex
  70. Second digit or Index finger
    digitus secundus (ll) index
  71. Third digit or Middle finger
    digitus tertius (lll) digitus medius
  72. Fourth digit or Ring finger
    digitus quartus (lV), digitus anularis
  73. Fifth digit or Little finger
    digitus quintus (V), digitus minimus