Micro glossary terms

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Micro glossary terms
2010-02-02 14:57:25

micro glossary terms
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  1. arbovirus
    an arthropodborne virus, carried by mosquitoes and ticks in most cases
  2. autotroph
    an organism capable of synthesizing its own organic nutrients
  3. catalyze
    to speed up a reaction; enzymes catalyze reactions without becoming a part of the reaction or products
  4. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  5. electrolyte
    a chemical substance, organic or inorganic (mineral), that is dissociated in the body fluids, including the blood. These atoms or molecules have a charge, hence, "electrolytes". Also called ions; ex: sodium (Na+), magnesium (MG2+), nitrate (NO3-).
  6. fermentation
    a catabolic, energy-yielding, largely anaerobic process in which pyruvic acid is broken down into certain end products, including carbon dioxide, ethanol, and lactic acid.
  7. heterotroph
    an organism requiring consumption or absorption of organic compounds of nutrition and survival.
  8. ligase
    an enzyme that influences the formation of a bond between two molecules
  9. LPS
    lipopolysaccharide component of the cell wall of bacteria; forms a toxic component (endotoxin) in Gram-negative bacteria
  10. lysis, lytic
    chemical destruction or dissolution
  11. monomer
    a single substance composed of non-repeated units. Such a substance is capable of binding with another similar substance, thus forming a dimer (di, two); or with two other similar substances (trimer), and so on (pentamer, polymer).
  12. operon
    a group of genes that function to turn on or turn off the synthesis of a protein, usually an enzyme; includes structural genes that initiate protein synthesis, operator genes that regulate the activity of structural genes, and regulator genes that control the activity of structural genes, and regulator genes that control the activity of operator genes. There are enzyme induction operons and enzyme repression operons.
  13. polymer
    a structure of a substance consisting of several monomers
  14. protease
    an enzyme that breaks down protein into smaller units (polypeptides).
  15. proteolysis
    the disintegration of protein. Usually accomplished by proteolytic enzymes.
  16. pyruvate
    the salt of pyruvic acid. pyruvate is the anionic or negatively charged form of pyruvic acid. The terms pyruvate and pyruvic acid are generally used interchangeably
  17. replication
    a duplication or repetition
  18. reservoir
    a storage site for infection; refers to a host of an infections microorganism that does not experience the signs and symptoms of the disease. Such a host is called a carrier. A carrier, hosting a reservoir of infectious microorganisms, can transmit the pathogen to another person or animal.
  19. RNA
    ribonucleic acid
  20. Streptococcus
    a genus of Gram-positive cocci that are anaerobic, non-motile, and non-sporeformers. Arranged into 4 groups, one of which includes the beta-hemolytic pathogenic species.
  21. template
    a pattern; a strand of DNA or RNA that provides the sequence of nucleotides for a strand of DNA or RNA being synthesized.
  22. transcription
    synthesis of RNA from DNA
  23. translation
    the synthesis of protein from messenger RNA