ANS drugs

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Author:
meowzart
ID:
59003
Filename:
ANS drugs
Updated:
2011-01-10 17:09:34
Tags:
drugs parr cardiovascular ANS
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Description:
Drugs that affect ANS
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  1. Cholinergic drugs promote the action of which neurotransmitter
    Acetylcholine ACH
  2. Cholinergic drugs promote the action of which ANS
    parasympathetic
  3. Name the two classes of cholinergic drugs
    • 1) cholinergic agonist
    • 2) anticholinesterase drugs
  4. What is the effect of cholinergic agonists?
    mimic the action of ACH
  5. Are cholinergic agonists administered IV or IM?
    no - broken down immediately and/or cause cholinergic crisis
  6. What effect do cholinergic drugs have on the following target organs
    - salivary glands
    - heart rate
    - blood vessel tone
    - bronchioles
    - GI tract activity
    - bladder
    - pupils
    • - increase salivation
    • - decrease HR
    • - vasodilation
    • - bronchiole constriction
    • - increase GI activity
    • - increase bladder tone and contraction
    • - constrict pupils
  7. Anticholinesterase drugs work how?
    block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, preventing the breakdown of ACH, thus stimulating the parasympathetic system.
  8. Can anticholinesterase drugs be given IM or IV?
    yes
  9. Anticholinesterase drugs are used in anesthesia for what reason?
    To reverse the effects of anticholinergics
  10. Name some anticholinesterase drugs commonly used in anesthesia/parr?
    • - edrophonium
    • - neostigmine
    • - physostigmine
    • - pyridostigmine
  11. How do anticholinergic drugs work?
    • block ACH from stimulating cholinergic receptors.
    • - interrupt PNS impulses
  12. Do anticholinergics work on muscarinic or nicotinic sites or both?
    muscarinic
  13. What anticholinergics are commonly used in anesthesia/parr?
    • atropine
    • scopolamine
    • glycopyrollate
    • dicyclomine
  14. Why are anticholinergics are commonly used in anesthesia/parr?
    • - treat bradycardia or arrhythmias
    • - decrease secretions
    • - block vagal reflexes such as decreased HR
    • - relax bowels
    • - bladder spasms
    • - biliary colic
    • - counteract neuromuscular blocking drugs
  15. Adrenergic drugs affect which ANS?
    sypathomimetic
  16. What are the two groups of adrenergic drugs?
    • - catecholamines
    • - noncatecholamines
  17. How to catecholamines act?
    • stimulate the SNS
    • - vasoconstriction
    • - increase HR
    • - bronchodilation
  18. What are some commonly used catecholamines?
    • - dobutamine
    • - dopamine
    • - epinephrine
    • - norepinephrine (levarteronol)
    • - isoproterenol
  19. What effect do catecholamines have on
    a) alpha receptors
    b) beta receptors
    c) dopamine receptors
    • a) alpha - activate or excite
    • b) beta - block or inhibit (except in the heart)
    • c) increase dopamine activity
  20. What effect do catecholamines have on the heart?
    • - inotropes - increase the force of heart contraction (increase o2 consumption)
    • - chronotropes - increase heart rate
  21. What is a potential devastating side effect?
    PVC's - ventricular irritibility
  22. Which adrenergics act mostly on the beta receptors?
    dobutamine and isopropteronol
  23. Epinephrine acts on which receptors?
    a) alpha
    b) beta
    c) dopamine
    a & b
  24. Norepinephrine acts on which receptors?
    a) alpha
    b) beta
    c) dopamine
    a - alpha
  25. Dobutamine and isopropterenol acts on which receptors?
    a) alpha
    b) beta
    c) dopamine
    beta
  26. Dopamine acts on which receptors?
    A) alpha
    B) dopamine
    C) beta
    B) dopamine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Alpha stimulating catecholamines are used to treat what?
    • hypotension. Especially caused by
    • a) vasodilation
    • b) blood loss
  28. Beta stimulating catecholamines are used to treat what?
    • - bradycardia
    • - heart block
    • - low Cardiac output
    • - make heart more responsive to defibrillation
    • therefore used for v fib; asystole; cardiac arrest
    • - allergic reactions
    • - bronchospasms
  29. Non-catecholamine adrenergics have what effects?
    • Stimulate the SNS
    • - vasoconstriction
    • - bronchodilation
    • - decongestion
    • - smooth muscle relaxation
  30. Some examples of non-catecholamine adrenergics:
    • - albuterol (beta)
    • phenylephrine (alpha)
    • metaproterenol (beta)
    • terbutaline (beta)
    • ephedrine (beta)
    • isoproterenol
    • terbutaline (smooth muscle relax)
  31. Alpha Adrenergic blockers (sympatholytic) work how?
    interrupt the actions of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine at alpha receptors
  32. What effects do alpha sympatholytics have?
    • - smooth muscle relaxation
    • - vasodilation
    • - decrease BP
  33. When are alpha sympatholytics used
    • - hypertension
    • - peripheral vascular disease
    • - pheochormocytoma
    • - vascular headaches
  34. How do beta-blockers work?
    prevent stimulation of SNS by inhibiting catecholamine action
  35. Non-selective beta blocks act on what sites?
    • beta 1 and beta 2
    • (heart and bronchioles vessels
  36. Selective beta blockers act on what site(s)
    beta 1 (heart)
  37. Some commonly used non-selective beta blockers
    • 'olols'
    • - carvedilol
    • - labetalol
    • - propanolol
  38. Some commonly used selective beta blockers
    • 'olols'
    • - atenolol
    • esmolol
    • metoprolol
    • acebutolol
  39. What kinds of effects do betablockers have
    • - decrease BP
    • - decrease force of contraction
    • - decrease O2 consumption of heart
    • - decrease cardiac output
    • - decrease HR & excitability
    • - vasoconstriction (b2)
    • - bronchoconstriction
  40. What conditions are beta blockers used to treat?
    • angina
    • - hypertension
    • - cardiomyopathy
    • - SVA
    • - anxiety
    • - migraines
    • - tremors

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