BYU AH100 Ch 1 City Upon a Hill

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jpnelson35
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59015
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BYU AH100 Ch 1 City Upon a Hill
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2011-01-12 15:03:03
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American Heritage BYU AM100
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BYU American Heritage City Upon a Hill Chapter 1 Terms By Jeff Nelson
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  1. Sovereignty
    Ultimate Political power - having the final say.
  2. Human Predicament
    The cycle from tyranny to anarchy to which sovereign power and its ill effects give rise.
  3. Despot
    A ruler excercising absolute power
  4. Revolution
    A means of removing tyranny from power; part of the human predicament cycle
  5. Tyranny
    absolute power centralized in one person (or small group); part of the human predicament cycle
  6. Anarchy
    No one person or group maintains absolute power. Characterized by mass disorder caused by failure to agree on a common course of action. Part of the human predic cycle
  7. Competeing Groups
    groups that, in astate of anarchy, fight for supreme power and control; part of human predic cycle.
  8. Good society
    Reasonably stable and prosperous society without an oppressive tyranny. Usually includes peace, respect, vibrant culture, and personal freedom to live the way one chooses.
  9. Plato
    • 427BC-347BC
    • Greek philosopher and author of The Republic, which extolled civic virtue and the necessity of arete.
  10. Political Legitimacy
    ruling by a sanction higher than stark necessity; sanction may stem from devine right, wisdom or consent, ect.
  11. King James 1
    1566-1625 King james 1 of England claimed political legitimacy through a "devine right of kings".
  12. Devine right of Kings
    Political theory that royal lines are established by God and that kings rule by devine decree.
  13. theocracy
    Divinely inspired rule, or rule by religion.
  14. Aristocracy
    Rule based on distinguished or wise ancestors and heritage.
  15. Greek Freedom
    The privilege of taking part in the political process and observing society's rules.
  16. Human Nature
    The fundamental disposition of humans that determines their behavior.
  17. Arete
    Greek term for human virtue, the backbone of republican morality. Striving for excelence.
  18. European Enlightenment
    18th century philosophical movement that proposed individual self-interest, rather than Greek virtue or Christian humility, as the motivating factor in human behavior.
  19. Autocracy
    One of the four alternative forms of government; sees people as children in need of a carefully controlled environment provided by government.
  20. Classical Repulicanism
    one of the 4 alternative forms of government; sees people and government as mostly good but corruptible and so government should have restricted power and try to encourage a good moral climate.
  21. Bill of Rights
    First 10 amendments to the Constitution regarding basic protections of rights from government, passed in response to the Anti-Federalist argument against the initial constitution.
  22. Libertarianism
    one of the 4 alternative forms of government; sees the most important value as individual freedom and holds that government should only protect that freedom and nothing else.
  23. Liberalism
    one of the 4 alternative forms of government; sees people in the most favorable light, but institutions or other influences can corrupt them, so government is necessary to protect them from such corruption.
  24. Thomas Jefferson
    • 3rd president
    • principle author of dec of independence
    • influencial father of the United States
    • Promoted classical liberalism, republicanism, and the separation of church and state.
  25. Structure
    Rules and restrictions designed to better harness virtue.
  26. Polis
    city or city-state, often self-governed by its citizens as the ancient greek city-states were.
  27. Social Compact
    The social concept of a group of autonomous individuals living in a state of nature, making a common agreement about the sort of political world they want to live in.
  28. State of nature
    Hypothetical condition assumed to exist in the absense of government where human beings live in "complete" freedom and general equality.

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