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2011-01-10 19:05:09
dermatitis rash dermatology

Derm terms
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  1. macule
    a flat & generally less than 0.5 cm area of skin or mucous membranes with different color from surrounding tissue. Macules may have nonpalpable & fine scale
  2. patch
    a flat & generally greater than 0.5 cm area of skin or mucous membranes with different color from surrounding tissue. Patches may have nonpalpable & fine scale
  3. cyst
    raised & smooth; a closed cavity or sac containing fluid or semisolid material. A cyst may have an epithelial or endothelial or membranous lining
  4. nodule
    raised & smooth; a dermal or subcutaneous & firm & well-defined lesion that is usually greater than 0.5 cm in diameter
  5. papule
    raised & smooth; a papule is a discrete & solid & elevated body that is usually less than 0.5 cm in diameter. Papules are further classified by shape & size & color & surface change
  6. plaque
    raised & smooth; a plaque is a discrete & solid & elevated body that is usually broader than it is thick & measuring more than 0.5 cm in diameter. Plaques may be further classified by shape & size & color & surface change
  7. crust
    surface change; a hardened layer that results when serum (yellow-brown) or blood(red-black) or purulent (yellow-green) exudate dries on the skin surface. Crusts may be thin or thick & can have varying color.
  8. scale
    surface change; results from excess stratum corneum that accumulates in flakes or plates. Scale usually has a white or gray color.
  9. bulla
    fluid-filled; greater than 0.5 cm in diameter; can be clear or serous or hemorrhagic or pus-filled; a large vesicle
  10. pustule
    fluid-filled; a circumscribed elevation that contains pus; usually less than 0.5 cm in diameter
  11. vesicle
    fluid-filled; less than 0.5 cm in diameter; fluid may be clear or serous or hemorrhagic or pus-filled
  12. erythema
    localied & blanchable redness of the skin or mucous membranes; no leakage of blood flow (allows blanching to occur)
  13. erythroderma
    generalized & blanchable redness of the skin that may be associated with desquamation; no leakage of blood flow (allowing blanching to occur)
  14. telangiectasia
    a visible & persistent dilation of small superficial cutaneous blood vessels; will blanch
  15. ecchymosis
    a purpuric lesion; an extravasation of blood into the skin or mucous membranes; may progress over time from blue-black to brown-yellow or green; do not blanch because blood has leaked outside the vessels into the surrounding skin
  16. petechiae
    (initlally) purpuric lesions; non-blanchable macules resulting from tiny hemmorhages; can be differentiated from pigmented lesions by color; do not blanch
  17. palpable purpura
    a purpuric lesion; raised & palpable discoloration of skin or mucous membranes due to vascular inflammation in the skin & extravasation of blood; do not blanch
  18. atrohpy
    sunken lesion; a thinning of tissue defined by its location (epidermal vs. dermal vs. subcutaneous atrophy)
  19. erosion
    sunken lesion; a localized loss of the epidermal or mucosal epithelium
  20. ulcer
    sunken lesion; a circumscribed loss of the epidermis and at least upper dermis
  21. gangrene
    necrotic & usually black tissue due to obstruction or diminution or loss of blood supply; may be wet (often follows a crushing injury & has an offensive odor & spreads rapidly) or dry (affected area becomes cold & dry & shriveled)
  22. eschar
    a scab or dry crust that results from trauma or infection or excoriating skin disease
  23. tumor
    raised & smooth; a large nodule
  24. milia (s. milium)
    raised & smooth; superfcial cysts
  25. wheal
    also called a hive; a firm & edementous plaque resulting from inflitration of the dermis with fluid; are transient & may last only a few hours
  26. target lesion
    a dusky red & round maculopapule with a classic 'iris' appearance. Results from centrifugal spread of the red maculopapule to a circumference of 1 - 3 cm as the center becomes cyanotic or purpuric or vesicular. Consists of two distinct zones: an inner zone of acute epidermal injury with necrosis or blisters & an outer zone of erythema.
  27. burrow
    a narrow & elevated & tortuous channel produced by a parasite
  28. comedones (s. comedo)
    open = blackhead; closed = whitehead
  29. desquamation
    a normal process in which the cornified layer of the epidermis is sloughed off in fine scales or sheets
  30. excoriation
    an erosion caused by scratching; often linear
  31. fissure
    a linear loss of epidermis & dermis with sharply defined & nearly vertical walls
  32. lichenification
    an area of thickened epidermis induced by scratching; skin lines are accentuated so the surface looks like a washboard
  33. induration
    thickening of the skin caused by a process below the epidermis
  34. agminted lesions
    clustered lesions
  35. serpiginous lesions
    snakelike or serpentine in shape
  36. annular lesions
  37. acral
    a pattern of skin lesions involving the distal aspects of the head & the extremities
  38. dermatomal
    a pattern of skin lesion distribution in which the lesions follow the sensory skin innervation of a particular nerve root; do not cross the midline of the body
  39. intertriginous
    a pattern of skin lesions inovolving creases & folds
  40. lyphangitic
    a pattern of skin lesions appearing along the path of the lymph channels of the leg or arm
  41. photodistributed
    a pattern of skin lesions that follows the sun-exposed skin
  42. arcuate lesions
  43. polycyclic lesions
    formed from coalescing circles or rings or incomplete rings
  44. reticulate lesions
  45. dermatitis
    inflammation of the skin
  46. atopic dermatitis
    common chronic & itchy dermatitis that waxes & wanes; occurs in up to 20% of children & 1% of adults; exact etiology unknown; associated with asthma & allergy
  47. contact dermatitis
    caused by contact; may be irritant (could irritate anyone's skin with enough exposure) or allergic (type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction - exposure causes sensitization)
  48. stasis dermatitis
    occurs in patients with chronic swelling of the lower legs frpm venous insufficiency; compromised circulation to the skin leads to dryness & inflammation; most often involves medial ankle
  49. lichen simplex chronicus
    may or may not be an underlying dermatitis; itching leads to scratching which leads to lichenification (thickening) of the skin; results in cycle
  50. white dermatographism
    occurs in patients with atopic dermatitis; normal red blanching turns white as a result of over-correction (over-vasodilation); indicates hypersensitivity
  51. spongiotic
    edematous skin; appears 'sponge-like' due to increased fluid-filled intercellular spaces
  52. acanthosis
    thickening of the epidermis; typical of chronic dermatitis (emerges due to constant scratching)
  53. acute dermatitis
    characterized by edema; edema fluid may emerge from the surface as an ooze or crust; fluid may pool under surface if stratum corneum is thick
  54. pediatric vs. adult atopic dermatitis
    pediatric - tends to be itchy & on extremities/cheeks & affect extensor surfaces; adult - tends to affect flexor surfaces & spare head/face
  55. chronic stasis dermatitis
    characterized by erythema & red-brown discoloration due to deep deposits of hemosiderin (product of degraded RBCs)
  56. pathophysiology of stasis dermatitis
    once thought to be related to hypoxia (now shown to be untrue); related to increased hydrostatic pressure -> leakage of fibrinogen -> fibrin cuffs
  57. Rhus dermatitis
    contact dermatitis response to plants from the genus Rhus (contain oleoresins); Rhus includes poison ivy & mango skin; generally erupts within 2 days; tends to present with linear lesions where plant stroked skin - papules then vesicles; can be treated by washing within 10 minutes; later treatment with calomine but NOT topical Benadryl (can sensitize) or with topical corticosteroids if severe
  58. neomycin
    topical antibiotic; highly sensitizing; often produces allergic contact dermatitis