Derm_terms.csv

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Author:
elplute
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59025
Filename:
Derm_terms.csv
Updated:
2011-01-10 19:05:09
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dermatitis rash dermatology
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Derm terms
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  1. macule
    a flat & generally less than 0.5 cm area of skin or mucous membranes with different color from surrounding tissue. Macules may have nonpalpable & fine scale
  2. patch
    a flat & generally greater than 0.5 cm area of skin or mucous membranes with different color from surrounding tissue. Patches may have nonpalpable & fine scale
  3. cyst
    raised & smooth; a closed cavity or sac containing fluid or semisolid material. A cyst may have an epithelial or endothelial or membranous lining
  4. nodule
    raised & smooth; a dermal or subcutaneous & firm & well-defined lesion that is usually greater than 0.5 cm in diameter
  5. papule
    raised & smooth; a papule is a discrete & solid & elevated body that is usually less than 0.5 cm in diameter. Papules are further classified by shape & size & color & surface change
  6. plaque
    raised & smooth; a plaque is a discrete & solid & elevated body that is usually broader than it is thick & measuring more than 0.5 cm in diameter. Plaques may be further classified by shape & size & color & surface change
  7. crust
    surface change; a hardened layer that results when serum (yellow-brown) or blood(red-black) or purulent (yellow-green) exudate dries on the skin surface. Crusts may be thin or thick & can have varying color.
  8. scale
    surface change; results from excess stratum corneum that accumulates in flakes or plates. Scale usually has a white or gray color.
  9. bulla
    fluid-filled; greater than 0.5 cm in diameter; can be clear or serous or hemorrhagic or pus-filled; a large vesicle
  10. pustule
    fluid-filled; a circumscribed elevation that contains pus; usually less than 0.5 cm in diameter
  11. vesicle
    fluid-filled; less than 0.5 cm in diameter; fluid may be clear or serous or hemorrhagic or pus-filled
  12. erythema
    localied & blanchable redness of the skin or mucous membranes; no leakage of blood flow (allows blanching to occur)
  13. erythroderma
    generalized & blanchable redness of the skin that may be associated with desquamation; no leakage of blood flow (allowing blanching to occur)
  14. telangiectasia
    a visible & persistent dilation of small superficial cutaneous blood vessels; will blanch
  15. ecchymosis
    a purpuric lesion; an extravasation of blood into the skin or mucous membranes; may progress over time from blue-black to brown-yellow or green; do not blanch because blood has leaked outside the vessels into the surrounding skin
  16. petechiae
    (initlally) purpuric lesions; non-blanchable macules resulting from tiny hemmorhages; can be differentiated from pigmented lesions by color; do not blanch
  17. palpable purpura
    a purpuric lesion; raised & palpable discoloration of skin or mucous membranes due to vascular inflammation in the skin & extravasation of blood; do not blanch
  18. atrohpy
    sunken lesion; a thinning of tissue defined by its location (epidermal vs. dermal vs. subcutaneous atrophy)
  19. erosion
    sunken lesion; a localized loss of the epidermal or mucosal epithelium
  20. ulcer
    sunken lesion; a circumscribed loss of the epidermis and at least upper dermis
  21. gangrene
    necrotic & usually black tissue due to obstruction or diminution or loss of blood supply; may be wet (often follows a crushing injury & has an offensive odor & spreads rapidly) or dry (affected area becomes cold & dry & shriveled)
  22. eschar
    a scab or dry crust that results from trauma or infection or excoriating skin disease
  23. tumor
    raised & smooth; a large nodule
  24. milia (s. milium)
    raised & smooth; superfcial cysts
  25. wheal
    also called a hive; a firm & edementous plaque resulting from inflitration of the dermis with fluid; are transient & may last only a few hours
  26. target lesion
    a dusky red & round maculopapule with a classic 'iris' appearance. Results from centrifugal spread of the red maculopapule to a circumference of 1 - 3 cm as the center becomes cyanotic or purpuric or vesicular. Consists of two distinct zones: an inner zone of acute epidermal injury with necrosis or blisters & an outer zone of erythema.
  27. burrow
    a narrow & elevated & tortuous channel produced by a parasite
  28. comedones (s. comedo)
    open = blackhead; closed = whitehead
  29. desquamation
    a normal process in which the cornified layer of the epidermis is sloughed off in fine scales or sheets
  30. excoriation
    an erosion caused by scratching; often linear
  31. fissure
    a linear loss of epidermis & dermis with sharply defined & nearly vertical walls
  32. lichenification
    an area of thickened epidermis induced by scratching; skin lines are accentuated so the surface looks like a washboard
  33. induration
    thickening of the skin caused by a process below the epidermis
  34. agminted lesions
    clustered lesions
  35. serpiginous lesions
    snakelike or serpentine in shape
  36. annular lesions
    ring-shaped
  37. acral
    a pattern of skin lesions involving the distal aspects of the head & the extremities
  38. dermatomal
    a pattern of skin lesion distribution in which the lesions follow the sensory skin innervation of a particular nerve root; do not cross the midline of the body
  39. intertriginous
    a pattern of skin lesions inovolving creases & folds
  40. lyphangitic
    a pattern of skin lesions appearing along the path of the lymph channels of the leg or arm
  41. photodistributed
    a pattern of skin lesions that follows the sun-exposed skin
  42. arcuate lesions
    arc-shaped
  43. polycyclic lesions
    formed from coalescing circles or rings or incomplete rings
  44. reticulate lesions
    netlike
  45. dermatitis
    inflammation of the skin
  46. atopic dermatitis
    common chronic & itchy dermatitis that waxes & wanes; occurs in up to 20% of children & 1% of adults; exact etiology unknown; associated with asthma & allergy
  47. contact dermatitis
    caused by contact; may be irritant (could irritate anyone's skin with enough exposure) or allergic (type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction - exposure causes sensitization)
  48. stasis dermatitis
    occurs in patients with chronic swelling of the lower legs frpm venous insufficiency; compromised circulation to the skin leads to dryness & inflammation; most often involves medial ankle
  49. lichen simplex chronicus
    may or may not be an underlying dermatitis; itching leads to scratching which leads to lichenification (thickening) of the skin; results in cycle
  50. white dermatographism
    occurs in patients with atopic dermatitis; normal red blanching turns white as a result of over-correction (over-vasodilation); indicates hypersensitivity
  51. spongiotic
    edematous skin; appears 'sponge-like' due to increased fluid-filled intercellular spaces
  52. acanthosis
    thickening of the epidermis; typical of chronic dermatitis (emerges due to constant scratching)
  53. acute dermatitis
    characterized by edema; edema fluid may emerge from the surface as an ooze or crust; fluid may pool under surface if stratum corneum is thick
  54. pediatric vs. adult atopic dermatitis
    pediatric - tends to be itchy & on extremities/cheeks & affect extensor surfaces; adult - tends to affect flexor surfaces & spare head/face
  55. chronic stasis dermatitis
    characterized by erythema & red-brown discoloration due to deep deposits of hemosiderin (product of degraded RBCs)
  56. pathophysiology of stasis dermatitis
    once thought to be related to hypoxia (now shown to be untrue); related to increased hydrostatic pressure -> leakage of fibrinogen -> fibrin cuffs
  57. Rhus dermatitis
    contact dermatitis response to plants from the genus Rhus (contain oleoresins); Rhus includes poison ivy & mango skin; generally erupts within 2 days; tends to present with linear lesions where plant stroked skin - papules then vesicles; can be treated by washing within 10 minutes; later treatment with calomine but NOT topical Benadryl (can sensitize) or with topical corticosteroids if severe
  58. neomycin
    topical antibiotic; highly sensitizing; often produces allergic contact dermatitis

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