Pharmacology Antineoplastics .txt

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TrishaNicole
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Pharmacology Antineoplastics .txt
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2011-01-10 23:44:18
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Pharmacology Antineoplastics
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Pharmacology Antineoplastics
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  1. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE
    (sye-kloe-foss-fa-mide)
    (Cytoxan, CTX)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Lowered blood counts, (WBC, RBC, Platelets) Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, hair loss, loss of menstrual periods, decreased sex drive, bladder irritation, metallic taste in mouth during injection.

    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
    • Treatment of lymphomas, multiple myeloma, leukemias, mycisis fungoides, retinoblastoma, and ovarian and breast cancer
    • Contact prescriber before having any vaccinations, such as measles or flu shots
    • Contact prescriber if sever mout blistering or fatigue
    • Also needing immediate attention would be painful urination or bloody urination, black tarry stools and unusual bruising or bleeding
    • RX: Preg Cat D
  2. DOXORUBICIN
    (dox-oh-roo-bih-sin)
    (Adriamycin, Doxil, Rubex)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Hair loss, mouth sores, nausea, vomiting, lowered blood counts (WBC, RBCs and platelets) Damage to heart muscle, skin damage if drug leaks out of vein during infusion.

    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
    • Treatment of cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS
    • Contact prescriber before hiving any vaccinations, such as measles of flu shots
    • Contact prescriber if sever mouth blistering or fatigue.
    • Also needing immediate attention would be painful urination or bloody urine, unusual bruising or bleeding, pain at injection site, any change in normal bowel patterns lasting longer than 2 days
    • RX: Preg Cat D
  3. FLUOROURACIL
    (flure-oh-yoor-a-sill)
    (5-FU, Adrucil)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, Thinning or loss of hair, Skin rash and itching, skin darkening, weakness

    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
    • Treatment of cancers: colon, rectal, breast, stomach, pancreas, ovarian, cervical, bladder
    • Contact prescriber before having any vaccinations, such as measles or flu shots
    • contact prescriber if sever mouth blistering or fatigue
    • Also needing immediate attention would be painful urination or bloody urine, black tarry stools, diarrhea, stomach pain and any unusual bruising or bleeding
    • RX: Preg Cat D
  4. LETROZOLE
    (let-roe-zoal)
    (Femara)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Hot flashes, night sweats, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, muscle, joint or bone pain, excessive tiredness, muscle weakness, dizziness.

    • NURSING CONSIDERATIONS:
    • Treatment of early breast cancer either right after surgery, radiation and or chemotherapy or five yrars after tamoxifen use. Also for breast cancer metastases
    • Only for post menopausal women
    • Since drug may cause or worsen osteoporosis, educate about ways to reduce risk
    • Contact prescriber if chest pain or difficulty breathing
    • RX: Preg Cat D
  5. MERCAPTOPURINE
    (mer-kap-toe-pyoor-een)
    (6-MP, Leukerin, Mercaleukin, Purinethol)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Low blood counts, mouth sores, skin reash, acne, nausea, abnormal liver function

    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
    • Treatment of leukemia, many types of autoimmune diseases, some anemias, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, ulcerative colitis
    • contact prescriber before having any vaccinations, such as measles or flu shots
    • contact prescriber if painful urination or bloody urine, black tarry stools, diarrhea, stomach pain and any unusual bruising or bleeding
    • RX: Preg Cat D
  6. METHOTREXATE
    (meth-oh-trex-ate)
    (Trexall, Rheumatrex, Amethopterin, MTX, Mexate, Emtexate, Metatrexan, Methopterin, Folex)

    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Abnormal liver function tests, Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, upset stomach, alopecia, skin and eye sensitivity to sunlight, anemia

    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
    • Treatment of cancer, mycosis fungoides, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, crohn's disease
    • Avoid crowds of people with known infections
    • Monitor for pulmonary toxicity, which may manifest early as a dry, nonproductive cough
    • Do not take ASA or other NSAIDs which may cause GI bleeding
    • Do not drink alcohol while taking methotrexate
    • If for rheumatoid arthritis treatment, can take 3-6 weeks or longer for full effect
    • Contact prescriber if chest pain, fainting, vision problems, difficulty speaking or moving.
    • RX: Preg Cat X
  7. PACLITAXEL
    (pak-lih-tax-ell)
    (Onxol, Taxol)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Low blood pressure, shortness of breath, rash, loss of hair, low blood cell counts, nerve pain

    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
    • Treatment of metatastic breast and ovarian cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer
    • Patients take desamethasone (Decadron) before treatment with paclitaxel
    • Contact prescriber before having any vaccinations such as measels or flu shots
    • Contact prescriber if pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, change in normal bowel patterns lasting more than 2 days and any unusual bruising or bleeding
    • RX: Preg Cat D
  8. TAMOXIFEN
    (ta-mox-i-fen)
    (Nolvadex)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • nausea, vomiting, hot flashes, headache, light-headedness, rash

    • NURSING CONSIDERATIONS:
    • Estrogen antagonist used in management of advanced breast cancer in estrogen receptor-positive patients and can be prophylaxis for women at high risk
    • To decrease GI upset, take after antacid, after evening meal, before bedtime or take antiemetic 30-60 minutes ahead.
    • Vaginal bleeding, pruritis, hot flashes are reversible after stopping med.
    • Contact prescriber if decreased visual acuity which may be irreversibleTumor flare (increase in tumor size and increased bone pain) may occur, but will decrease rapidly; may take analgesics for pain
    • RX: Preg Cat D
  9. THALIDOMIDE
    (thah-lih-doe-mide)
    (Thalomid)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Drowsiness, dizziness, slower heartbeats, photosensitivity

    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
    • Treatment of primary brain malignancies, Kaposi's sarcoma, leprosy, lupus
    • Contact prescriber if rash, fever, numbness, tingling, pain or burning sensation in hands or feet.
    • Alcohol will add to drowsiness side effect. No driving or operating machinery until effects known
    • Cannot give blood or donate sperm during treatment
    • RX: Preg Cat X
  10. VINCRISTINE
    (vin-kris-teen)
    (Oncovin, Vincasar, Vincrex, Leurocristine)


    Antineoplastic
    • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • bloating, nausea and vomiting, skin rash, temporary loss of hair, neurological problems

    • NURSING CONSIDERATIONS:
    • Treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non Hodgkin's lymphomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, Kaposi's sarcoma
    • Cont prescriber before having any vaccinations, such as measles or flu shots
    • contact prescriber if severe mouth blistering or fatigue
    • Also needing immediate attention would be increased, painful or difficult urination, tingling, numbness or cramping in the arms or legs for longer than a few days, severe abdominal or muscle cramping, talking, or seeing
    • RX: Preg Cat D

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