Anatomy Dr. Guy's

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runner0369
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59131
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Anatomy Dr. Guy's
Updated:
2011-01-12 20:29:12
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NBCE Anatomy
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Anatomy flashcards made based on Dr. Guy's notes for NBCE study
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  1. What vertical plane divides the body at the midline into left and right halves?
    Median plane or midsagittal plane
  2. What type of plane is parallel to the median plane?
    Sagittal
  3. What type of vertical plane divides the body into anterior and posterior?
    Coronal or frontal plane
  4. What type of plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions?
    Horizonal or transverse plane
  5. What movement decreases the angle between bones or body parts?
    Flexion
  6. What movement straightens a bent part or increases the angle between parts?
    Extension
  7. What is movement of the trunk or head away from the median plane of the body in the coronal plane?
    Lateral bending
  8. What is movement of a limb away from the median plane in the coronal plane?
    Abduction
  9. What is movement of a limb toward the median plane in the coronal plane?
    Adduction
  10. What is the movement in which the thumb pad is brought toward a finger pad?
    Opposition
  11. What is movement anterior as occurs in a protruding mandible?
    Protraction
  12. What is movement posterior as it occurs in the mandible?
    Retraction
  13. What movemnt turns the plantar surface of the foot toward the median plane of the body?
    Inversion
  14. What movement turns the plantar surface of the foot away from the median line of the body?
    Eversion
  15. What movement rotates the forearm so the dorsum of the hand faces posteriorly?
    Supination
  16. What movement rotates the forearm so the dorsum of the hand faces anteriorly?
    Pronation
  17. What is movement of a joint around its long axis?
    Rotation
  18. What movement combines flexion, abduction, adduction, extension and rotation?
    Circumduction
  19. What is the meeting of the lambdoidal, occipitomastoid and parietomastoid sutures called?
    Asterion
  20. What is the meeting of the great wing of the sphenoid and the parietal bone?
    Pterion
  21. What is another name for the external occipital protuberance?
    Inion
  22. What is the point where the lambdoidal and sagittal sutures meet?
    Lambda
  23. What is the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures?
    Bregma
  24. What are the soft spots in the skull of a newborn infant?
    Fontanelles
  25. Where is the anterior fontanelle located?
    Bregma
  26. Which of the fontanelles is the largest?
    Anterior
  27. Where is the posterior fontanelle located?
    Lambda
  28. Where is the lateral fontanelle located?
    Pterion
  29. Where is the Mastoid fontanelle located?
    Asterion
  30. What muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles?
    Sternocleidomastoid
  31. What 4 triangles are contained within the anterior triangle of the neck?
    Muscular, submandibular (digastric), carotid, submental
  32. Which triangle contains the thyroid?
    Muscular
  33. What 2 triangles are contained in the posterior triangle of the neck?
    Occipital and omoclavicular (supraclavicular)
  34. What wide thin muscle is located in the superficial fascia of the neck?
    Platysma muscle
  35. What are the actions of the platysma muscle?
    Tensing the skin and drawing the corners of the mouth inferior. Also acts during intense inspiration
  36. What nerve supplies the platysma muscle?
    Cervical branch of the CN VII (supraclavicular nerve)
  37. What vertebral level is the thyroid cartilage at?
    C4/5
  38. What cartilage is the Adam's apple?
    Thyroid cartilage
  39. At what level is the carotid tubercle?
    C6 (ant. tubercle)
  40. What anterior cervical muscles are above the hyoid?
    MSG Die: Mylohyoid, stylohyoid, geniohyoid, digastric
  41. What anterior cervical muscles are below the hyoid?
    TOSS: Thyrohyoid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid
  42. Which ribs are true ribs?
    1-7
  43. Which ribs are false ribs?
    8-12
  44. Which ribs are floating ribs?
    11-12
  45. Which ribs articulate with only one vertebra?
    1, 10, 11, 12 (all of the numbers with a 1)
  46. Which vertebra do ribs 2-9 articulate with?
    The vertebra of the same number and the vertebra above
  47. Where do the tubercles of ribs articulate?
    With the TP of the same number
  48. Do ribs 11 and 12 articulate with the TP of their corresponding vertebra?
    No
  49. What type of joints are costovertebral and costotransverse joints?
    gliding
  50. What type of joints are costochondral joints?
    Cartilaginous
  51. Which vertebra are atypical?
    T1, 9,10,11,12
  52. Which ribs are atypical?
    1, 10, 11, 12
  53. What are the medial boundaries of the axilla?
    Upper ribs and serratus anterior muscle
  54. What is the lateral boundary of the axilla?
    Humerus
  55. What are the posterior boundaries of the axilla?
    Subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles
  56. What are the anterior boundaries of the axilla?
    Pectoralis major and minor
  57. What muscle forms the anterior axillary fold?
    Pectoralis major
  58. What muscle forms the posterior axillary fold?
    latissimus dorsi
  59. What vertebra and dermatome does the xiphoid process line up with?
    T9 vertebra, T7 dermatome
  60. What level is the iliac crest at?
    L4
  61. The inguinal ligament is the inferior margin of what muscle?
    External oblique
  62. What are the attachments of the inguinal ligament?
    ASIS to pubic tubercle
  63. What dermatome is the inguinal ligament in?
    L1
  64. What is the linea alba?
    common insertion of the abdominal muscle formed by the fusion of the rectus abdominus muscles. It runs from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis
  65. What level and dermatome is the umbilicus at?
    L3 disc, T10 dermatome
  66. What is the linea semilunaris?
    The lateral edge of the rectus abdominal muscle
  67. Where is the pubic tubercle?
    Just lateral to the symphysis pubis
  68. What 4 lines divide the abdomen into 9 sections?
    Left and right midclavicular, transpyloric and transtubecular
  69. What are the 9 sections and 4 quadrants the abdomen can be divided into?
  70. What dermatome is the nape of the neck?
    C3
  71. What dermatome are the nipples?
    T4
  72. What dermatome is the navel?
    T10
  73. What dermatome is the knee?
    L3
  74. Bone is hard because of its high content of what?
    Calcium phosphate salt
  75. What bones are included in the axial skeleton?
    Skull, hyoid, vertebral column and rib cage (including sternum)
  76. What bones are included in the appendicular skeleton?
    limbs and their girdles (hips, scapula, clavicle)
  77. What joint attaches the appendicular skeleton to the axial skeleton?
    Sternoclavicular joint
  78. What are the two types of bone and what are the differences between them?
    • Compact- on outer surface of the bone, solid mass
    • Cancellous (spongy) - consists of a branching network of trabeculae
  79. What covers the compact bone?
    periosteum (inner and outer layers)
  80. What is another name for the Haversion system? What is the Haversion system?
    Osteon, vessels that run parallel to the long axis of the bone are contained in the Haversion canals. They are surrounded by concentric lamellae and are seperated by canaliculi
  81. What are Volkman's canals?
    Perpendicular to the long axis of the bone. They allow blood vessels to enter from the periosteum and reach the Haversion canals. They are not surrounded by lamallae.
  82. What is the diaphysis?
    The tubular shaft of long bones which contain bone marrow (hemopoietic)
  83. What is the epiphysis?
    The end of long bone (covered by articular cartilage)
  84. What is the metaphysis?
    Between the diaphysis and the epiphysis, rich in blood supply, most susceptable to infection
  85. What is the epiphyseal plate (growth plate)?
    Cartilagenous plate which appears during the growth of bones (length)
  86. What is the periosteum?
    Covering over bone which is responsible for circumferential growth of bone (width).
  87. What part of bone has the most pain receptors?
    Periosteum
  88. What are the two methods of bone development?
    Membranous (bone is developed directly from connective tissue) and endochondral (cartilage is laid down then replaced by bone)
  89. What type of developement occurs in the bones of the vault of the skull?
    membranous
  90. What type of development do long bones undergo?
    endochondral
  91. What type of joints are immoveable?
    Synarthroses
  92. What type of joints are only slightly moveable?
    Amphiarthroses
  93. What type of joints are freely moveable?
    Diarthroses
  94. What are the three types of joints based on structure?
    Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
  95. What are the three types of fibrous joints?
    Suture, syndesmosis and gomphosis
  96. What type of joint are suture? Where are they found? What do they become?
    Synarthroses, between bones of skull, fuse to form synostosis
  97. What type of joint are syndesmosis?
    Amphiarthrotic, 2 bones united by a sheet of fibrous tissue
  98. What type of joint are gomphosis? Where are they found?
    Synarthrosis, peg in socket, ex. roots of teeth
  99. What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
    Synchondrosis (primary) and Symphysis (secondary)
  100. What type of joints are synchondrosis? What is the connecting material in them? Where are they found?
    Synarthrotic, hyaline cartilage, found between epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bone, remain until replaced by bone
  101. What type of joint are symphysis? What connects these joints? What are they designed for? Examples (2)?
    Amphiarthrotic, connected by a broad flat disc of fibrocartilage, designed for strength and shock absorption, ex. IVD, pubic symphysis
  102. What are the two parts of the articular capsule of a synovial joint?
    Fibrous capsule (outer) and synovial membrane (inner, produces synovial fluid)
  103. What is synovial fluid made of?
    Hyaluronic acid (muccopolysaccharide)
  104. What type of joint are synovial?
    Diarthrosis
  105. What type of joint allows sliding between 2 flat surfaces?
    Plane or gliding
  106. What type of joint are facets?
    Plane or gliding
  107. What type of joint are carpal joints?
    Plane or gliding
  108. What type of joint are Tarsal joints?
    Plane or gliding
  109. What type of joint are intermetacarpal?
    Plane or gliding
  110. What type of joint are proximal Tib-Fib?
    Plane or gliding
  111. What type of joint are Sternoclavicular?
    Plane or gliding
  112. What type of joint are Acromioclavicular?
    Plane or gliding
  113. What type of joint are costosternal (ribs 2-7)?
    Plane or gliding
  114. What type of joint is costosternal (rib 1)?
    Synchondrosis
  115. What type of joint allows flexion and extension only?
    Hinge or ginglymus
  116. What type of joint are in the elbow?
    Hinge or ginglymus
  117. What type of joint are in the knee?
    Hinge or ginglymus
  118. What type of joint are in the ankle?
    Hinge or ginglymus
  119. What type of joint are interphalangeal?
    Hinge or ginglymus
  120. What type of joint allows rotation around a longitudinal axis?
    Pivot or trochoid
  121. What type of joint is the proximal radioulnar?
    Pivot or trochoid
  122. What type of joint is the atlanto-axial?
    Pivot or trochoid
  123. What type of joint allows movement in 2 directions at right angles to each other? (flex/ext and abduction/adduction)
    Condyloid or ellipsoidal
  124. What type of joint are radiocarpal?
    Condyloid or ellipsoidal
  125. What type of joint are metacarpophalangeal?
    Condyloid or ellipsoidal
  126. What type of joint allows side to side and back and forth movement and has a U-shaped articular surface?
    Saddle or sellar
  127. What type of joint are the carpometacarpal of the thumb?
    Saddle or sellar
  128. What type of joint are patellofemoral?
    Saddle or sellar
  129. What type of joint allows free movement in all directions?
    Ball and socket or spheroidal
  130. What type of joint is the shoulder?
    Ball and socket or spheroidal
  131. What type of joint is the hip?
    Ball and socket or spheroidal
  132. What type of joint are the middle radioulnar?
    Syndesmosis
  133. What type of joint are the middle tibiofibular?
    Syndesmosis
  134. What type of joint are distal tibiofibular?
    Syndesmosis
  135. What type of joint are distal radioulnar?
    Pivot or trochoid
  136. pg. 15

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