quiz #1 – cardiovascular system.txt

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quiz #1 – cardiovascular system.txt
2011-02-06 13:36:15

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  1. what are the three layers of the heart?
    epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
  2. what is the name of the fibrous sag that surrounds the heart?
    the pericardium
  3. what characteristics do cardiac and skeletal muscle share?
    • slow twitch fibers
    • striated muscle fibers
    • voluntary control?
  4. what are the differences between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?
    • skeletal muscle does not have autonomic nerve fibers
    • cardiac is slow twitch
  5. how many atria and ventricles are there within the heart?
    • there are two atria – left and right
    • there are two ventricles – left and right
  6. which of the ventricles are larger? The left or the right

    Why is this side larger?
    the left

    Because the left ventricle has to pump blood throughout the body
  7. explain blood circulation throughout the heart and lungs,be sure to name the valves, arteries, and veins.
    right atrium – tricuspid valve – right ventricle – pulmonary valve – pulmonary artery – lung capillaries – pulmonary vein

    Left atrium – left valve – left ventricle – valve – aorta – arterioles

    Capillaries – venules – veins – superior and inferior vena cava – right atrium
  8. how are veins different from arteries?
    • no smooth muscle
    • venis have one-way valves
  9. true or false – veins can contract when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
  10. the right and left coronary arteries begin at the base of what arteries?
  11. when does a heart refill with blood?
    during diastole
  12. what is the function of arterioles?
    • resistance vessels
    • regulate blood flow to tissue
  13. what is a function of capillaries?
    capillaries are areas gas exchange
  14. what is a function of veins?
    • capacitance/storage system
    • carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
  15. heart rate regulation

    explain intrinsic regulation
    pacemaker – electrical impulse conduction system
  16. heart rate regulation

    Explain extrinsic regulation
    autonomic nervous system
  17. what two nerves regulate heart rate?
    • the vagus nerve– parasympathetic
    • cardiac accelerator nerve???
  18. SA node is the_______ of the heart
  19. normal heart rate ranges from?
    60 – 100 bpm
  20. true or false – the AV node is a backup pacemaker of the heart
  21. what is another name for Purkinje fibers
    bundle of his
  22. How come is the SA node the pacemaker of the heart and not the AV node?
    because the nerve is faster for the SA node
  23. explain the depolarization of the heart
    SA node – AV node – bundle of his– right and left bundle branches – Purkinje fibers
  24. true or false – the vagus can slow heart rate
  25. what happens during diastole?
    refilling/relaxation phase of the heart
  26. what happens during systole
    contraction of the heart
  27. what happens during the P wave of an EKG?
    atrial depolarization
  28. what happens during the QRS of an EKG?
    ventricular depolarization
  29. what happens during the T wave of an EKG?
    repolarization of the ventricles
  30. how does a cardiac accelerator nerve affect the heart
    this nerve innervates SA node in the ventricles of the heart and has sympathetic nervous system input
  31. true or false – the vagus nerve innervates only the AV node of the heart
    false – the vagus nerve innervates both AV node and SA note and has parasympathetic nervous systems and put
  32. true or false – heart rate during exercise initially increases at the beginning of exercise primarily due to decreased PNS tone
  33. true or false – after approximately 35 seconds, the heart rate will increase by sympathetic nervous system input,
    true – this is due to feedback from muscle and joint receptors as exercise begins
  34. what is the value for the mean arterial blood pressure
    96 mmHg
  35. what is the formula for mean arterial blood pressure
    MABP= DBP +.33 (SBP-DBP)
  36. what are major factors that influence blood pressure
    • peripheral resistance
    • blood viscosity
    • blood volume
    • heart rate
    • stroke volume
    • body position, body weight, etc.
  37. true or false – blood pressure is higher while standing up
    false – blood pressure is higher while laying down
  38. how is blood pressure regulated in the short term aspect
    by the baroreceptors located in the carotid and aortic arteries
  39. house blood pressure regulated in the long-term aspect of things
    the kidneys regulate blood volume via fluid output through electrolytes and hormone effects – sodium, aldosterone, ADH
  40. explain the baroreceptor reflex
    the baroreceptors in the carotid artery recognizes the low blood pressure and send signals to theCVCC in the medulla oblongata of the brain.. CVCC adjusts sympathetic nerve activity (SNS) two the peripheral vessels ( arterioles and veins) four vasoconstriction and hard to increase heart rate in contract ability; all help to return blood pressure back to normal
  41. how can you prevent orthostatic hypo tension
    • drop legs off to the side
    • deep breathing
    • active muscle contractions
  42. What is the difference between stroke volume and cardiac output?
    • Stroke volume: amount of blood ejected per contraction (mL/beat)
    • Cardiac output: amout of blood pumped by heart per minute
  43. What are 6 things that influence BP (if something goes up, BP goes up... if something goes down, BP goes down)
    • peripheral resistance
    • blood viscosity
    • blood volume
    • heart rate
    • stroke volume
    • body position/weight/wize
  44. What is the only type of exercise that increases DBP?
    Resistance- heavy isometric

    (SBP also goes up, but may temporarily decreses to levels slightly below exercise levels)
  45. At rest what is occuring with the blood flow?
    Low blood flow (15-20% Q) to skeletal muscles becase us SNS stimulation causing vasoconstriction
  46. In anticipation of exercise what occurs with the blood flow?
    • ACH is released into skeletal muscle by heart and SNS cholinergic fibers to dilate blood vessels
    • Once exercise begins, SNS causes vasoconstriction
  47. Which individual has the highest SV during exercise?
    fit individual
    sedentary individual
    individual with heart failure
    Fit individual
  48. If patients are HTN what should you try to do?
    • avoid heavy loading resistance
    • consider bouts of 10 minutes exercises
  49. What are two things that regulate stroke volume?
    • venous return: increases during exercise because of wasoconstriction, muscle pump, and respiratory pump
    • afterload: the impediment to ejection of blood from heart
  50. What are the effects of acute exercise?
    • vasodialation: decreases TPR (total peripheral resistance)
    • MAP increase: CO ^ x TPR ^
    • SV, HR, CO all ^
    • a-vO2 difference ^
  51. What happenes to Q, SV, and HR with prolonged exercise?
    • Q stays constant
    • SV declines
    • HR increases
  52. What are some CV benefits of exercise?
    • ^ efficiency of heart
    • beats slower, but ejects mores
    • slower heart rate = less oxygen for heart
    • decreased SBP and DBP at rest
  53. What are blood/vascular changes with exercise?
    • # of RBC's ^ which means Hgb ^ which menas oxygen carrying capacity ^
    • plasma volume and total blood volume ^
    • hematocrit (% of cells in volume of blood): blood cells ^ but blood volume ^ more, so hematocrit decreases
    • favorable clotting characteristics because of low platelet adhesives
  54. Aerobic exercises cause restriction in what:
    • ^ HDL
    • decrease serum triglycerides
    • small to no reduction in LDL
    • total body fat
    • reduces intra-abdominal fat
    • reduces insulin needs, improves glucose tolerance
  55. In aerobic/endurance training what happens to the heart? What happens in resistance training?
    The left heart enlarges in diameter so volume capacity is greater. The diamter of ventricle increases equal to the hypertrophy of the ventricle.

    Resistance training causese the same hypertrophy of the walls but the diameter does not increase- therefore increasing pressure (why heavy resistance training would be good for someone with coronary heart disease)