quiz #1 –overview of the CNS.txt
Card Set Information
quiz #1 –overview of the CNS.txt
toward the beak
toward the tail
toward the front – anterior
toward the back – posterior
humans are different because we walk upright which means the brain must curve anteriorly_______ degrees toward the nose.
name the structures that a typical nerve cell contains
dendrite, cell body, Schwann cell, axon, axonal terminal
name the six types of nerve cells
unipolar, bipolar, pseudo-unipolar, multipolar, pyramidal, and Purkinje
where are bipolar cells located?
within the retinal region
where are pseudo-unipolar cells located?
the dorsal root ganglion
multipolar nerve cells have what kind of function?
pyramidal cells are typically located within what structure?
where are Purkinje nerve cells located?
Purkinje fibers look like the hairdo of what person?
in the cerebellum
true or false – some pyramidal cells can be seen with the naked eye
true or false – these cells can be up to 4 to 5 feet
true or false – pseudo-unipolar cells have two axons
efferent axons sent messages away from the thalamus and have a __________ function
afferent axons send messages toward the thalamus and have a _________ function
true or false – If a nerve is cut or damaged it is the nerve that causes the pain and not the surrounding tissue
false – the nerve itself doesn't hurt if the tissue covering the nerve that hurts
damage to the tissue causes inflammation and swelling = pressure on nerve = pain
functions of the spinal region
True or false – the primary purpose of the peripheral nervous system is to conduct information between the periphery and the brain
true or false – the spinal region does no information processing
false – the spinal cord is able to withdraw from painful stimulus. This action is done before the information can be processed by the brain.
in the spinal region the spinal cord is made up of central grey nuclei and white matter. Which is outer layer of the spinal cord?
in the spinal region, the spinal cord is made up of central grey nuclei and white matter. which is the inner layer the spinal cord?
the central gray nuclei
the gray nuclei is gray because it contains no
the cell bodies in a ganglion are located in the?
the nucleus or cortex is located within the?
how many pairs of spinal nerve roots are there that have both anterior and posterior roots
true or false – c1 always has a posterior root
false – C1 often doesn't have posterior roots
what two sections of the spinal cord have an enlarged area?
These areas are enlarged due to what structures?
C-5 – T1 and L2 – S3
The brachial plexus and the lumbosacral plexus
where does the spinal cord end?
what does cauda equina mean?
what is a tether release surgery?
a surgery that loosens the filum terminale when it is not long enough
the filum terminale plays what role for the spinal cord
it keeps the spinal cord from moving upwards
what does dura mater mean?
Is it the superficial, middle, or deep layer of the meninges?
what does Pia mater mean?
What is it?
interlayer which adheres to the nervous tissue
what does arachnoid mean?
where is the sub dural?
between the dura and the arachnoid
where is the subarachnoid space located
between arachnoid and pia
which are deeper; fissure or sulcus ?
where are the posterior intermediate sulci located?
from vertebral level T7 and above
what are the names of the three paired white columns?
The anterior, lateral, and posterior funiculi
how many paired columns are within the white matter?
three paired columns
what are funiculi?
true or false – horns are stacks of cell columns
how is gray matter organized?
the lateral gray horns go from T1 to?
the lateral grey horns are also known as
intermediolateral cell columns
what are the functions of the brainstem?
relay information between the brain in the spinal cord
integrates information– eye movement with vestibular input
regulates vital functions – respiration, heart rate, consciousness, arousal, blood pressure, G.I. tract, motility
the brainstem is made up of what three structures?
bulbopontine sulcus is also known as?
how is the brain stem organized?
Anterior third – basis
middle third – tegmentum
posterior third – tectum
what does tegmentum mean?
what does tectum mean
cerebral peduncles are also known as
true or false – the pre-olivary sulci in the post –olvary sulci come together and become the anterior lateral sulcus
the tegmentum has how many colliculi on it?
the median eminence is located on what structure
true or false – the trigones are located on the tegmentum
on the brainstem there are three cerebellar peduncles.what are they?
Superior middle and inferior
true or false – the superior cerebellar peduncles have messages that go INTO the cerebellum
false– information goes out of the cerebellum to the superior cerebellar peduncles
true or false – the inferior and middle cerebellar peduncles has information that goes into the cerebellum
where is a inferior cerebellar peduncles located?
the rhomboid fossa is what shape
what does tubercula mean
name the 12 cranial nerves
ocular motor– eye movement
trochlear– eye movement
trigeminal– face sensory and mastication
abducens– eye movement
facial– taste salvation tears facial expression
vestibulocochlear– hearing and balance
glossophyaryngeal– taste swallowing salivation
vagus- taste viscera and swallowing
accessory– SCM and trapezium
hypoglossal– tongue movement
the oculomotor nerve is located on the dorsal aspect of what structure in the brain
what are the structures that are located within the diencephalon?
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalmus, and sub thalamus
true or false – the structures within the diencephalon are not paired?
false – they are paired
what does the thalamus do
it is the relay station; sensory, motor, limbic, memory, arousal and associative functions
what does the hypothalamus do
True or false - it has both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences
ANS, endocrine, temperature, heating, limbic
what does the epithalamus do?
circadian cycles regulation, endocrine regulation
what does the subthalamus do
if damaged = motor disorders
what is the telencephalon?
cerebral cortex, cortex, cortical region
why is the brain convoluted?
the convolutions allow for more brain cells and surface area
the lateral fissure is also known as
what are the five lobes of the brain?
frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal, insula
what is a pre-occipital notch caused by
a bony landmark near the foramen magnum
the insula lobe is associated with the
the central sulcus divides the brain into?
front and back
frontal lobe and parietal lobe
name the four poles of the brain
temporal pole – right
temporal pole – left
what is important about the pars opercularis
it is the area of speech generation – especially on the left side
if there is damage to the pars opercularis,the patient will demonstrate what condition?
expression aphasia or brocca's aphasia
What percentage of people convert auditory input into language we can understand on the left side of the brain?
What is the operculum?
area in the brain where the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe connect