quiz #1 –overview of the CNS.txt

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quiz #1 –overview of the CNS.txt
2011-01-11 11:38:46

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  1. directional terms

    toward the beak
  2. directional terms

    toward the tail
  3. directional terms

    toward the front – anterior
  4. directional terms

    toward the back – posterior
  5. directional term

  6. directional term

  7. humans are different because we walk upright which means the brain must curve anteriorly_______ degrees toward the nose.
  8. name the structures that a typical nerve cell contains
    dendrite, cell body, Schwann cell, axon, axonal terminal
  9. name the six types of nerve cells
    unipolar, bipolar, pseudo-unipolar, multipolar, pyramidal, and Purkinje
  10. where are bipolar cells located?
    within the retinal region
  11. where are pseudo-unipolar cells located?
    the dorsal root ganglion
  12. multipolar nerve cells have what kind of function?
    motor function
  13. pyramidal cells are typically located within what structure?
    the hippocampus
  14. where are Purkinje nerve cells located?

    Purkinje fibers look like the hairdo of what person?
    in the cerebellum

    Don King
  15. true or false – some pyramidal cells can be seen with the naked eye
  16. true or false – these cells can be up to 4 to 5 feet
  17. true or false – pseudo-unipolar cells have two axons
  18. efferent axons sent messages away from the thalamus and have a __________ function
  19. afferent axons send messages toward the thalamus and have a _________ function
  20. true or false – If a nerve is cut or damaged it is the nerve that causes the pain and not the surrounding tissue
    false – the nerve itself doesn't hurt if the tissue covering the nerve that hurts

    damage to the tissue causes inflammation and swelling = pressure on nerve = pain
  21. functions of the spinal region

    True or false – the primary purpose of the peripheral nervous system is to conduct information between the periphery and the brain
  22. true or false – the spinal region does no information processing
    false – the spinal cord is able to withdraw from painful stimulus. This action is done before the information can be processed by the brain.
  23. define noxious
  24. in the spinal region the spinal cord is made up of central grey nuclei and white matter. Which is outer layer of the spinal cord?
    white matter
  25. in the spinal region, the spinal cord is made up of central grey nuclei and white matter. which is the inner layer the spinal cord?
    the central gray nuclei
  26. the gray nuclei is gray because it contains no
  27. the cell bodies in a ganglion are located in the?
  28. the nucleus or cortex is located within the?
  29. how many pairs of spinal nerve roots are there that have both anterior and posterior roots
  30. true or false – c1 always has a posterior root
    false – C1 often doesn't have posterior roots
  31. what two sections of the spinal cord have an enlarged area?

    These areas are enlarged due to what structures?
    C-5 – T1 and L2 – S3

    The brachial plexus and the lumbosacral plexus
  32. where does the spinal cord end?
  33. what does cauda equina mean?
    horses tail
  34. what is a tether release surgery?
    a surgery that loosens the filum terminale when it is not long enough
  35. the filum terminale plays what role for the spinal cord
    it keeps the spinal cord from moving upwards
  36. what does dura mater mean?

    Is it the superficial, middle, or deep layer of the meninges?
    tough mother

  37. what does Pia mater mean?

    What is it?
    delicate mother

    interlayer which adheres to the nervous tissue
  38. what does arachnoid mean?
  39. where is the sub dural?
    between the dura and the arachnoid
  40. where is the subarachnoid space located
    between arachnoid and pia
  41. which are deeper; fissure or sulcus ?
  42. where are the posterior intermediate sulci located?
    from vertebral level T7 and above
  43. what are the names of the three paired white columns?
    The anterior, lateral, and posterior funiculi
  44. how many paired columns are within the white matter?
    three paired columns
  45. what are funiculi?
  46. true or false – horns are stacks of cell columns
  47. how is gray matter organized?
    • anterior horn
    • posterior horn
  48. the lateral gray horns go from T1 to?
  49. the lateral grey horns are also known as
    intermediolateral cell columns
  50. what are the functions of the brainstem?

    Three things
    • relay information between the brain in the spinal cord
    • integrates information– eye movement with vestibular input
    • regulates vital functions – respiration, heart rate, consciousness, arousal, blood pressure, G.I. tract, motility
  51. the brainstem is made up of what three structures?
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Padula
  52. bulbo means
  53. bulbopontine sulcus is also known as?
    pontomedullary sulcus
  54. how is the brain stem organized?
    • Anterior third – basis
    • middle third – tegmentum
    • posterior third – tectum
  55. what does tegmentum mean?
  56. what does tectum mean
  57. cerebral peduncles are also known as

    crus means?
    crus cerebri

  58. true or false – the pre-olivary sulci in the post –olvary sulci come together and become the anterior lateral sulcus
  59. brachia means
  60. the tegmentum has how many colliculi on it?
  61. the median eminence is located on what structure
    the pons
  62. true or false – the trigones are located on the tegmentum
  63. on the brainstem there are three cerebellar peduncles.what are they?
    Superior middle and inferior
  64. true or false – the superior cerebellar peduncles have messages that go INTO the cerebellum
    false– information goes out of the cerebellum to the superior cerebellar peduncles
  65. true or false – the inferior and middle cerebellar peduncles has information that goes into the cerebellum
  66. where is a inferior cerebellar peduncles located?
  67. the rhomboid fossa is what shape
  68. what does tubercula mean
  69. name the 12 cranial nerves
    • olfactory– smell
    • optic– vision
    • ocular motor– eye movement
    • trochlear– eye movement
    • trigeminal– face sensory and mastication
    • abducens– eye movement
    • facial– taste salvation tears facial expression
    • vestibulocochlear– hearing and balance
    • glossophyaryngeal– taste swallowing salivation
    • vagus- taste viscera and swallowing
    • accessory– SCM and trapezium
    • hypoglossal– tongue movement
  70. the oculomotor nerve is located on the dorsal aspect of what structure in the brain
  71. what are the structures that are located within the diencephalon?
    thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalmus, and sub thalamus
  72. true or false – the structures within the diencephalon are not paired?
    false – they are paired
  73. what does the thalamus do
    it is the relay station; sensory, motor, limbic, memory, arousal and associative functions
  74. what does the hypothalamus do

    True or false - it has both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences
    ANS, endocrine, temperature, heating, limbic

  75. what does the epithalamus do?
    circadian cycles regulation, endocrine regulation
  76. what does the subthalamus do
    motor circuitry

    if damaged = motor disorders
  77. what is the telencephalon?

    the brain

    cerebral cortex, cortex, cortical region
  78. why is the brain convoluted?
    the convolutions allow for more brain cells and surface area
  79. the lateral fissure is also known as
    sylvian fissure
  80. what are the five lobes of the brain?
    frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal, insula
  81. what is a pre-occipital notch caused by
    a bony landmark near the foramen magnum
  82. the insula lobe is associated with the
    limbic system
  83. the central sulcus divides the brain into?
    • front and back
    • or
    • frontal lobe and parietal lobe
  84. name the four poles of the brain
    • frontal pole
    • occipital pole
    • temporal pole – right
    • temporal pole – left
  85. what is important about the pars opercularis
    it is the area of speech generation – especially on the left side
  86. if there is damage to the pars opercularis,the patient will demonstrate what condition?
    expression aphasia or brocca's aphasia
  87. What percentage of people convert auditory input into language we can understand on the left side of the brain?
  88. What is the operculum?
    area in the brain where the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe connect