Anatomy Block 4

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elg04c
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59195
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Anatomy Block 4
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2011-02-02 23:36:23
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Lower Limb
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Lower Limb muscles
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  1. What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the thigh which flex the hip?
    • Iliopsoas
    • Pectineus
    • Sartorius
  2. What are the attachments of the Iliopsoas muscle?
    • T12- L4 and the iliac fossa
    • Lesser trochanter of the femur
  3. What is the innervation of the iliopsoas muscle?
    L2-L4 and femoral nerve
  4. What are the actions of the iliopsoas muscle?
    Flexes and stabilizes the hip
  5. What are the attachments of the pectineus muscle?
    • Superior pubic ramus
    • Pectineal line of the femur
  6. What innervates the pectineus muscle?
    Femoral nerve
  7. What are the actions of the pectineus muscle?
    • Flexes the hip
    • Adducts the thigh
    • Weak medial rotator of the thigh
  8. What are the attachments of the sartorius muscle?
    • ASIS
    • Medial tibia (pes anserinus)
  9. What innervates the sartorius muscle?
    Femoral nerve
  10. What are the actions of the sartorius muscle?
    • Flexes, weakly abducts and laterally rotates thigh at the hip
    • Flexes the knee
  11. What muscles in the anterior compartment are extensors of the knee?
    • Quadraceps femoris muscle:
    • rectus femoris
    • vastus lateralis
    • vastus intermedius
    • vastus medialis
  12. What muscles are found in the anterior compartment of the thigh?
    • Iliopsoas
    • Sartorius
    • Pecteneus
    • Quadraceps femoris (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis)
  13. What are the attachments of the rectus femoris?
    • AIIS
    • Tibial tuberosity (via quadraceps tendon and patellar ligament)
  14. What are the attachments of the vastus lateralis?
    • Greater trochanter
    • Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
  15. What are the attachments of the vastus intermedius?
    • Intertrochanteric line
    • Quadraceps tendon
  16. What are the attachments of the vastus medialis?
    • Intertrochanterc line
    • Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
  17. What innervates the quadraceps femoris muscle?
    Femoral nerve
  18. What are the actions of the quadraceps femoris?
    • Extends the knee
    • Rectus femoris weakly flexes the hip
  19. What muscles are in the medial compartment of the thigh?
    • Gracilis
    • Adductor longus
    • Adductir brevis
    • Adductor magnus (adductor portion and hamstring portion)
    • Obturator externus
  20. What are the attachments of the gracilis muscle?
    • Inferior ramus of pubis
    • Medial tibia (pes anserinus)
  21. What innervates the gracilis muscle?
    Anterior division of the obturator nerve
  22. What are the attachments of adductor longus?
    • Body and inferior ramus of pubis
    • Lina aspera
  23. What innervates adductor longus?
    anterior division of the obturator nerve
  24. What are the attachments of adductor brevis?
    • Body and inferior ramus of pubis
    • Linea aspera
  25. What innervates adductor brevis?
    Anterior division of obturator nerve
  26. What are the actions of the gracilis muscle?
    Adducts the thigh and helps to flex the knee
  27. What are the actions of the adductor longus muscle?
    Adducts the thigh
  28. What are the actions of adductor brevis?
    Adducts the thigh
  29. What muscles does the anterior division of the obturator nerve innervate?
    • Gracilis
    • Adductor longus
    • Adductor brevis
  30. What are the attachments of adductor magnus - the adductor part?
    • Ischiopubic ramus
    • Linea aspera
  31. What innervates the adductor part of adductor magnus?
    Posterior division of the obturator nerve
  32. What are the actions of the adductor part of adductor magnus?
    Adducts the thigh and helps flex the hip
  33. What are the attachments of the hamstring part of adductor magnus?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Adductor tubercle
  34. What innervates the hamstring part of adductor magnus?
    Tibial part of sciatic nerve
  35. What are the actions of the hamstring part of adductor magnus?
    Extends the hip
  36. What are the attachments of Obturator externus?
    • Obturator foramen
    • Trochanteric fossa
  37. What innervates the obturator externus muscle?
    Posterior division of obturator nerve
  38. What are the actions of the obturator externus muscle?
    Laterally rotates the thigh
  39. What does the posterior division of the obturator nerve innervate?
    • Adductor magnus (adductor part)
    • Obturator externus
  40. What muscles are in the posterior compartment of the thigh?
    • Semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
    • Biceps femoris (long head and short head)
    • Adductor magnus (hamstring portion)
  41. What are the attachments of the semitendinosus muscle?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Medial tibial condyle
  42. What innervates the semitendinosus muscle?
    Tibial portion of sciatic nerve
  43. What are the actions of the semitendinosus muscle?
    • Extends the hip
    • Flexes the knee
  44. What are the attachments of the semimembranosus?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Medial tibial condyle (pes anserinus)
  45. What innervates the semimembranosus muscle?
    Tibial part of sciatic nerve
  46. What are the actions of semimembranosus?
    • Extends the hip
    • Flexes the knee
  47. What are the attachments of the long head of the biceps femoris?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Head of the fibula
  48. What are the attachments of the short head of the biceps femoris?
    • Lateral lip of linea aspera
    • Head of the fibula
  49. What innervates the long head of the biceps femoris?
    Tibial portion of the sciatic nerve
  50. What innervates the short head of the biceps femoris?
    Common fibular portion of the sciatic nerve
  51. What are the actions of the biceps femoris?
    • Extends the hip
    • Flexes the knee
  52. What does the tibial portion of the sciatic nerve innervate?
    • Semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
    • Long head of biceps femoris
    • Hamstring portion of adductor magnus
  53. What does the common fibular portion of the sciatic nerve innervate in the thigh?
    Short head of the biceps femoris
  54. What spinal nerve segments are in the common fibular portion of the sciatic nerve?
    L4, L5, S1, S2
  55. What spinal nerve segments are in the tibial portion of the sciatic nerve?
    L4, L5, S1, S2, S3
  56. What artery supplies blood to the anterior compartment of the thigh?
    • Femoral artery:
    • Lateral circumflex femoral artery
    • Medial circumflex femoral artery
  57. What artery supplies blood to the medial compartment of the thigh?
    • Deep femoral artery
    • Perforating arteries
  58. What artery supplies blood to the posterior compartment of the thigh?
    • Perforating arteries
    • *from deep femoral artery
  59. What are the attachments of the Iliotibial tract?
    From Iliac tubercle to the tubercle of the tibia (Gerdy's tubercle)
  60. What opening does the saphenous vein traverse in the fascia lata?
    Saphenous opening
  61. What covers the saphenous openining?
    Cribiform fascia
  62. What does the iliotibial tract form?
    Conjoint tendon of tensor fascia lata and gluteus maximus muscles
  63. What makes up the floor of the femoral triangle?
    • Iliopsoas muscle
    • Pectineus muscle
    • Adductor longus muscle
  64. What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?
    • Inferior border of inguinal ligament
    • Medial border of sartorius muscle
    • Medial border of adductor longus muscle
  65. What are the contents of the femoral triangle from lateral to medial?
    • Femoral nerve
    • Femoral artery
    • Femoral vein
    • Inguinal lymph nodes
  66. What fascia forms the femoral sheath?
    Transversalis fasica and Iliac fascia
  67. What are the contents of the femoral sheath?
    Femoral artery and vein
  68. Where is the femoral nerve relative to the femoral sheath?
    Lateral to it
  69. What are the contents of the femoral ring?
    Lymph nodes
  70. What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?
    • 1. Semimembranosus muscle
    • 2. Semitendinosus muscle
    • 3. Biceps femoris muscle
    • 4. Medial head of gastrocnemius muscle
    • 5. Lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle
    • 6. Plantaris muscle
  71. What is the roof of the popliteal fossa?
    • Popliteal fascia
    • Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
    • Small saphenous vein
    • Medial sural nerve
    • lateral sural nerve
  72. What makes up the floor of the popliteal fossa?
    • Femur
    • Oblique popliteal ligament
    • Popliteus muscle
  73. What nerve and vein always run together in the roof of the popliteal fossa?
    Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve and the small saphenous vein
  74. What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?
    • Tibial nerve
    • Common fibular nerve
    • Medial and lateral sural nerves
    • Popliteal vein
    • Small saphenous vein
    • Popliteal artery
    • Genicular anastomoses
  75. What type of joint is the tibiofibular joint?
    • Modified hinge joint (Synovial)
    • *modified because it can do a little bit of rotation
  76. What are the articulations of the tibiofibular joint?
    Medial and lateral femoral condyles (of femur) with medial and lateral tibial plateus (of tibia)
  77. What muscle tendon is commonly confused for a nerve in the popliteal fossa?
    The plantaris muscle tendon
  78. The oblique popliteal ligament is an extension of what muscle's tendon?
    Semimembranous
  79. What makes the patella a sesamoid bone?
    It is a bone found in a tendon- the patella is found in the quadraceps femoris tendon
  80. Which of the meniscuses provides stability for the knee joint and why?
    Medial meniscus bc it is attached to the collateral ligament
  81. Which ligaments are the extracapsular ligaments?
    • Oblique popliteal ligament
    • Arcuate Popliteal ligament
  82. Where can you find the arcuate popliteal ligament?
    over part of the popliteus muscle
  83. Where do extracapsular collateral ligaments attach?
    From bone to bone on the outside of the capsule
  84. Which ligament prevents varus?
    lateral collateral ligament
  85. Which ligament prevents valgus?
    medial collateral ligament
  86. Which collateral ligament is stronger and why?
    medial collateral ligament is stronger because it has more attachments
  87. What are the intracapsular ligaments?
    • Transverse ligament of the knee
    • Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
    • Cruciate ligaments
  88. What does the transverse ligament attach to?
    Connects the meniscuses
  89. Where does the posterior meniscofemoral ligament attach?
    from lateral meniscus to the tibia
  90. Where are the crucitate ligaments found?
    Intracapsular but outside the cavity
  91. What are the cruciate ligaments?
    • Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
    • (ACL and PCL)
  92. Where does the anterior cruciate ligament attach?
    From the medial side of the tibial plateu to lateral side of femur
  93. What are the functions of the ACL?
    Precents anterior displacement of tibia on fixed femur; prevents hyperextension
  94. Where does the posterior cruciate ligament attach?
    From lateral side of tibia to medial femur
  95. What are the functions of the PCL?
    Prevents posterior displacement of tibia on the fixed femur; prevents hyperflexion
  96. What ligaments of the knee are refered to as the "unhappy triad" when injured?
    • 1. ACL
    • 2. Medial collateral
    • 3. Medial meniscus
  97. What are the attachments of the Articularis genus muscle?
    Fibers from vastus intermedius attaching to the suprapatellar bursa at the apex (muscle fibers are from vastus intermedius)
  98. Where is the prepatellar bursa?
    Between skin and the patella
  99. Where are the infrapatella bursa located?
    • Superficial infrapatellar- superficial to the patellar ligament
    • Deep infrapatellar- deep to the patellar ligament
  100. What superficial nerve and vein run together over the lateral malleolus?
    Small saphenous vein and sural nerve
  101. What superficial nerve and vein run together over the medial malleolus?
    Great saphenous vein and saphenous nerve
  102. What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the leg?
    • Tibialis anterior
    • Extensor digitorum longus
    • Fibularis Tertius
    • Extensor hallicus longus
  103. What are the attachments of the tibialis anterior?
    • Lateral tibial condyle
    • Medial cunieform ; 1st metatarsal
  104. What are the actions of the tibialis anterior?
    • Dorsiflexes foot
    • Inverts foot
  105. What are the attachments of extensor digitorum longus?
    • Lateral tibial condyle, fibula
    • Extensor expansion of digits 2-5
  106. What are the actions of extensor digitorum longus?
    • Dorsiflexes foot
    • Extends toes 2-5
  107. What are the attachments of fibialis tertius?
    • Fibula
    • 5th metatarsal
  108. What are the actions of fibularis tertius?
    Dorsiflexes and everts foot
  109. What are the attachments of extensor hallicus longus?
    • Fibula
    • Distal phalanx of great toe
  110. What are the actions of extensor hallicus longus?
    • Weakly dorsiflexes foot
    • Extends big toe
  111. What nerve innervates muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg?
    Deep fibular nerve
  112. What muscles does the deep fibular nerve innervate?
    • Tibialis anterior
    • Extensor digitorum longus
    • Fibularis tertius
    • Extensor hallucis longus
  113. What muscles are in the lateral compartment of the leg?
    • Fibularis longus
    • Fibularis brevis
  114. What are the attachments of fibularis longus?
    • Head of fibula
    • 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform (plantar surface)
    • *Goes across the lateral malleolus and plantar foot
  115. What are the actions of Fibularis longus?
    Everts foot
  116. What are the attachments of fibularis brevis?
    • Fibula
    • Lateral side of 5th metatarsal
  117. What are the actions of fibularis brevis?
    Everts foot
  118. What nerve innervates muscles in the lateral compartment?
    Superficial fibular nerve
  119. What does the superficial fibular nerve innervate?
    • Fibularis longus
    • Fibularis brevis
  120. What muscles are in the superficial part of the posterior compartment?
    • Plantaris muscle
    • Triceps Surae (Gastrocnemius (medial and lateral heads) and Soleus)
  121. What muscles make up the triceps surae?
    • Medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius
    • Soleus
  122. What are the attachments of the gastrocnemius?
    • Medial and lateral femoral condyles
    • Achilles tendon
    • Calcaneus
  123. What are the actions of the gastrocnemius?
    • Flexes knee
    • Plantarflexes foot
  124. What are the attachments of the soleus?
    • Fibula
    • Soleal line of tibia
    • Achilles tendon
    • Calcaneus
  125. What are the actions of the soleus?
    Plantarflexes foot
  126. What are the attachments of the plantaris muscle?
    • Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur
    • long tendon that joins with achilles tendon
    • calcaneus
  127. What are the actions of the plantaris muscle?
    • Weak flexor of knee
    • Weak plantarflexor of foot
  128. What muscles are in the deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg?
    • Tibialis posterior
    • Flexor hallucis longus
    • Flexor digitorum longus
    • Popliteus
  129. What are the attachments of tibialis posterior?
    • Tibia and Fibula
    • Tarsal bones, metatarsals 2-5
  130. What are the actions of tibialis posterior?
    Plantarflexes and inverts foot
  131. What are the attachments of flexor digitorum longus?
    • Tibia, Fibula
    • Distal phalanges of digits 2-5
  132. What are the actions of flexor digitorum longus?
    • Plantarflexes foot
    • Flexes digits 2-5
  133. What are the attachments of the popliteus muscle?
    • Lateral femoral condyle
    • Tibia
  134. What are the actions of the popliteus muscle?
    In weight bearing leg, laterally rotate femur to unlock knee
  135. What are the attachments of the flexor hallucis longus?
    • Fibula
    • Distal phalanx of great toe
  136. What are the actions of flexor hallucis longus?
    Plantarflexes foot flexes big toe
  137. What nerve innervates all the muscles in the posterior compartment (superficial and deep)?
    Tibial nerve
  138. What muscles does tibial nerve innervate?
    • Triceps surae (Gastrocnemius, soleus)
    • Plantaris
    • Flexor digitorum longus
    • Tibialis posterior
    • Flexor hallucis longus
    • Popliteus
  139. What arttery supplies blood to the anterior part of the leg?
    Anterior tibial artery
  140. What artery supplies blood to the posterior part of the leg?
    Posterior tibial artery
  141. What artery supplies blood to the lateral leg?
    Fibular (peroneal artery)
  142. What muscles are on the dorsum of the foot?
    • Extensor digitorum breivs
    • Extensor hallucis brevis
  143. What are the attachments of extensor digitorum brevis?
    Calcaneous to the extensor expansions of digits 2-5
  144. What innervates extensor digitorum brevis?
    Deep fibular nerve
  145. What are the actions of extensor digitorum brevis?
    Helps extend toes 2-4
  146. What are the attachments of extensor hallucis brevis?
    Calcaneus to proximal phalanx of great toe
  147. What innervates extensor hallucis brevis?
    Deep fibular nerve
  148. What are the actions of extensor hallucis brevis?
    Extends the great toe
  149. What does the deep fibular nerve innervate in the foot?
    Extensor hallucis brevis and extensor digitorum brevis
  150. What spinal nerve fibers are in the deep fibular nerve?
    L4, L5, S1
  151. What muscles are in the first layer of the plantar foot?
    • Abductor hallucis
    • Flexor digitorum brevis
    • Abductor digiti minimi
  152. What are the attachments of abductor hallucis?
    • Calcaneal tuberosity
    • Lateral side of proximal phalanx of great toe
  153. What innervates abductor hallucis?
    Medial plantar nerve
  154. What are the actions of abductor hallucis?
    Abducts and flexes great toe
  155. What are the attachments of flexor digitorum brevis?
    • Calcaneal tuberosity
    • Middle phalanx of digits 2-5
  156. What nerve innervates the flexor digitorum brevis?
    Medial plantar nerve
  157. What are the actions of flexor digitorum brevis?
    Flexes toes 2-5 at PIP
  158. What are the attachments of the abductor digiti minimi?
    • Calcaneal tuberosity
    • Proximal phalanx of little toe
  159. What innervates abductor digiti minimi?
    Lateral plantar nerve
  160. What are the actions of abductor digiti minimi?
    Abducts and flexes little toe
  161. What muscles and tendons are in the second layer of the plantar foot?
    • Quadratus plantae
    • Lumbricals
    • Tendon of flexor digitorum longus
    • Tendon of flexor hallucis longus
  162. What are the attachments of the quadratus plantae muscle?
    Calcaneal tuberosity to tendon of flexor digitorum longus
  163. What innervates the quadratus plantae muscle?
    Lateral plantar nerve
  164. What are the actions of the quadratus plantae muscle?
    Assists FDL in flexing toes 2-5
  165. What are the attachments of the lumbricals (foot)?
    Medial side of each FDL digit tendon to extensor expansion of digits 2-5
  166. What innervates the lumbricals (on the foot)?
    • Lumbrical 1: Medial plantar nerve
    • Lumbricals 2-4: Lateral plantar nerve
  167. What are the actions of the lumbricals (foot)?
    • Flexes toes 2-5 at MP
    • Extends toes 2-5 at IP
  168. What makes up the sacral-ischial ligaments?
    • Sacrotuberous ligament
    • Sacrospinous ligament
  169. What are the functions of the sacral-ischial ligaments?
    • Prevents upward tilting (nutation) of sacrum
    • Transform greater and lesser sciatic notches into greater and lesser sciatic foramina
  170. Attachments of sacrospinous ligament
    From sacrum and coccyx to ischial spine
  171. Attachments of sacrotuberous ligament
    From ilum, sacrum and coccyx to ischial tuberosity
  172. Attachments of piriformis
    From sacrum to greater trochanter
  173. Innervation of piriformis
    Nerve to piriformis (S1, S2)
  174. Actions of piriformis
    Lateral rotator of hip
  175. Obturator internus attachments
    Obturator forament to greater trochanter
  176. Innervation of obturator internus
    Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2)
  177. Actions of obturator internus
    Lateral rotator of hip
    • A) Superior Cluneal (dorsal rami of L1-L3)
    • B) Middle cluneal (dorsal rami of S1-S3)
    • C) Inferior cluneal (ventral rami of S2 and S3)
    • D) Ventral rami of L2-L3
  178. Attachments of gluteus maximus
    • Ilum, sacrum, coccyx and sacrotuberous ligament to
    • Gluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract
  179. What innervates gluteus maximus?
    Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)
  180. Actions of gluteus maximus
    • Forcefully extends hip
    • Lateral rotation of extended thigh
    • Stabilizes knee joint
  181. What are the attachments of gluteus medius and minimus?
    Ilium to greater trochanter
  182. What innervates gluteus medius, minimus and tensor fascia lata?
    Superior gluteal nerve
  183. What are the actions of gluteus medius, minimus and tensor fasica lata?
    • Abduction of hip
    • Medial rotation of thigh
    • Levels pelvis during walking
  184. What are the attachments of tensor fasica lata?
    • ASIS and Iliac crest
    • Iliotibial tract and Gerdy's tubercle
  185. What are the attachments of superior gemellus?
    • Ischial spine
    • Greater trochanter
  186. Innervation of superior gemellus
    Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1)
  187. Actions of superior gemellus
    Lateral roatator of thigh
  188. What are the attachments of inferior gemellus?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Greater trochanter
  189. What innervates inferior gemellus?
    Nerve to quadratus femoris (L5, S1)
  190. Actions of inferior gemellus
    Laterally rotates thigh
  191. What are the attachments of quadratus femoris?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Intertrochanteric crest
  192. What innervates quadratus femoris?
    nerve to quadratus femoris
  193. What are the actions of quadratus femors?
    Laterally rotates thigh
  194. What are the names of the three gluteal bursae?
    • Trochanteric bursa
    • Ischial bursa
    • Gluteofemoral bursa
  195. Where is trochanteric bursa?
    Between gluteus maximus and greater trochanter
  196. Where is ischial bursa?
    Between gluteus maximus and ischial tuberosity
  197. Where is gluteofemoral bursa?
    Between iliotibial tract and vastus lateralis
  198. What acts like a sling on the femoral neck?
    Zona orbicularis
  199. What arteries supply blood to the head and neck of the femur?
    Retincacular branches from circumflex femoral arteries
  200. Primary flexor of the hip joint
    Iliopsoas
  201. Primary extensors of hip joint
    Gluteus maximus and hamstrings
  202. Primary abductors of hip joint
    Gluteus medius and minimus
  203. Primary Adductors of hip joint
    • Adductor longus, brevis and magnus
    • Gracilis
    • Pectineus
  204. Primary medial rotators of hip
    Gluteus medius and minumus
  205. Primary lateral rotators of hip joint
    • Piriformis
    • Superior and inferior gemelli
    • Quadratus femoris
    • Obturator internus and externus
  206. What muscles constitute the hamstrings?
    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus
    • Hamstring part of adductor magnus
    • Long head of biceps femoris

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