health units 3&4

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health units 3&4
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study notes for through out the year.
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  1. U5MR
    • Under 5 mortality rate
    • The number of dealth of children under five years of age per 1000 live births.
  2. SES
    • The social standing of an indiviual in comparison to others in that society.
    • It is based on education, income and occupation.
  3. YLL
    • Years of life lost due to premature dealth.
    • It takes into account projected life expecctancy that is, how long an individual is expected to live.
  4. DALY
    • Disability adjusted life years.
    • One DALY is considered to be one year of health life lost. It is calculated by adding the years of life lost (YLL) with the years of life lost due to disability and/or illness (YLD).
  5. Burden of disease
    A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries, specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the DALY
  6. Incidence
    (when referring to morbidity) the number of new cases of a disease during a specified period of time (usually a twelve month period)
  7. Prevalence
    The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a popluation at a given time.
  8. Morbidity
    Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group.
  9. HALE
    • Health adjusted life expectancy.
    • A measure of burden of disease based of life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for the time spent in poor health.It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on the current rates of ill health and mortality.
  10. Life expectency
    An indication of how long a person can expect to live, it is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if dealth rates do not change.
  11. Mortality
    the number or rate of dealths in a specified time.
  12. Health status
    An individual's or population's overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.
  13. Mental health
    • Mental health refers to the current state of the mind, how a person is feeling about themself and how they deal with the situations in which they find themselved.
    • Low levels of stress and anxiety
    • Positive self esteem
    • Hight levels of confidence
    • Being optimistic
  14. What is health?
    Health is a state of complete physical, mental and sociial well being and not merely thr absence od disease or infirmity.
  15. Social health
    • Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and co-operative way.
    • A supportive network of friends
    • A supportive family
    • Productive relationships with people they associate with at work, school and so on.
  16. Physical Health
    • Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems and includes the capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness
    • Ideal body weight
    • Strong immune system
    • Adequate levels of energy
    • Freedom from illness, disease and injury.
  17. THe eight national health priority areas
    • obesity
    • athritis and other musculoskeletal conditions
    • diabetes millitus
    • asthma
    • cancer conrol
    • injury prevention and control
    • cardiovascular health
    • mantal health
  18. Direct costs
    • Associated with providing health services to people suffering from a disease or condition.
    • Individual:
    • ambulance
    • tests
    • doctors
    • surgery
    • pharmaceuticals
    • Community:
    • medicare
  19. Intangible costs
    • Thins that cannot be measured physically or with a monetary measure. (emotional costs)
    • Individual:
    • pain and suffering
    • stress
    • loss of self-esteem
    • loss of participation
  20. Indirect costs
    • Not directly related to the diagnosis or treatment of the disease, but do occur as a result of the person having the disease.
    • Individual:
    • loss of income
    • mowing the lawns
    • cleaner
    • transport costs
    • Comunity:
    • loss of productivity
    • disability benefits
    • lost taxation revenue
  21. Why were the NHPAs developed?
    • The high cost to the australian tax payer due to hospital asmission, treatment, ansenteeism from work etc.
    • Each health area specified contributes greatly to the burden of disease in australia
    • In each area, there is considerable potential to prevent, treat and manage the disease/incident
    • To raise public awareness of the major health issues and focus on health policy to adress the issues.
    • overal to decrease the burden of disease.
  22. Cardiovascular health
    Cardiovascular health includes all diseases of the heart and/or blood vessels
  23. Why is cardiovascular health an NHPA?
    • Leading cause of premature dealth
    • Largely preventable
  24. The costs of cardiovascular health
    • Direct:
    • hospital
    • ambulance
    • pharmasudicals
    • Indirect:
    • loss of productivity
    • carers
    • govenment payments
    • making household changes
    • Intangible:
    • pain and suffering
    • mental health issues
    • lifestyle changes
  25. A promotional strategy for cardiovascular health
    • The heart foundation's tick
    • non-govenment organisation
    • aims to reduce the number of people living with and dying of CVD.
    • aims to encourage people to choose healthier options by showing individual which foods are better options.
    • Done by displaying a tick
  26. Protective nutrients for CVD
    • HDL Cholesterol: as is circulates the blood stream, it clears cholesterol from the arteries, thus reducing the risk of CVD
    • Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats: these fats decrease LDL cholesterol levels
    • Dietary fibre: binds with cholesterol, then excreated with faeces
    • Vitamin E: lowers levels of LDL cholesterol
    • Omega 3: Lower levels of LDL cholesterol
  27. Risk factors for CVD
    • Smoking: increases stickyness in the arteries, increases likelihood of cholesterol sticking to arteries.
    • Stress: increases heart beat which increases the likelihood of clot breakage, this blocks in an artery in another part of the body
    • Excess weight: increases blood pressure and blood cholesterol which leads to CVD
    • Nutrition:
  28. Risk nutrients for CVD
    • Cholesterol LDL: invreased chance of cholesterol being deposited in the arteries
    • Saturated fat: increases levels of LDL
    • Sodium: increases blood pressure, increases clot breakage, clot blocks an artery in another part of the body, brain (stroke), coronary arteries (heart attack)
  29. Arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions (NHPA focus)
    • oseroarthritis: cartilage thin
    • rheumatoid arthritis: swollen
    • osteroporosis: bone density
    • juvenile arthritis: under 16
  30. A promotional strategy for athritis and other musculoskeletal conditions
    • Osteoporosis Australia
    • is an organisation that aims to improve awearness about the disease in australia, and reduce fractures.
    • revolves around providing information and services to both general public and the health workforce
  31. Why is arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions and NHPA?
    high rates of morbidity
  32. Costs of arthritis and other musculoskeltal conditions
    • Direct:
    • health care system
    • treatment
    • Indirect:
    • pain and suffering
    • loss of productivity
    • welfare payments
    • Intangible:
    • anxiety
    • missing out
    • physical inactivity
    • self-esteem
    • dependent on others
  33. Protective nutrients of osteoporosis
    • Calcium: build and maintains hard tissue
    • Vitamin D: assists absorption of calcium and fluoride
    • Vitamin A: controls process of osteoclats and osteoblasts
    • Phosphorus: combines with calcium
  34. Risk nutrients of Osteoporosis
    • Oxalic acid: prevents absorption of calcium
    • High protein diet: promotes the loss of calcium
    • Sodium: promotes loss of calcium. older perople tend to add salt to their food due to a reduction in active taste buds.
    • Caffeine: promotes loss of calcium
  35. Risk factors of osteoporosis
    • Diet: lack of required nutitents
    • Gender: women due to hormones
    • Hormones: low levels of oestrogen, especially after menopause
    • Gentics: appear to determine peak bone mass levels and extent of calcium loss after menopause
    • Smoking: in women decreases calcium and reach menopause eairler.
  36. Why is injury prevention and control and NHPA?
    • Contributes to burden of disease
    • YLL
    • preventable
  37. A promotional initiative for injury prevention and control
    National injury prevention
  38. Costs of injury and prevention control.
    • Direct:
    • hospital
    • ambulance
    • Indirect:
    • carers
    • lossof income
    • absenteeism
    • govenments assistance
    • loss of productivity
    • Intangible:
    • pain and suffering
    • frustration
    • loss of self-esteem
  39. Why is mental health an NHPA?
    • contibutes to YLD
    • prevention
    • treatment costs
    • increasing in young people
  40. The costs of mental health
    • Direct:
    • health care
    • pharmacy
    • Indirect:
    • carers
    • support payments
    • Intangible:
    • pain and suffering
    • loneliness
    • self-esteem
  41. A promotional strategy for mental health
    • Headspace
    • funded by the federal govenment
    • headspace aims to deliver improvements in the mental health, social wellbeing and economic participation of young australians aged 12 to 25
  42. Obesity
    • New to NHPA
    • having a body mass over 30
  43. Why is obesity a NHPA?
    • Development of other conditions
    • expected to raise
    • preventable
  44. Costs associated with obesity
    • Direct:
    • health system
    • treatment
    • Indirect:
    • loss of productivity
    • welfare payments
    • carers
    • weight management programs
    • Intangible:
    • mental health
    • sleep problems
    • inactivity
    • lack of energy
  45. A health promotional program for obesity
    • go for your life
    • victorian govenment initiative
    • aimed at reducing obesity and chronic diseases.
    • by promoting healthy eating a physical activity
  46. The risk nutrients for obesity
    • Saturated fat: most enery
    • Sodium: increase blood pressure
    • High GI carbs: more likely to be stored as fat.
  47. The risk factor for obesity
    • Physical inactivity: increases weight
    • Gender: males
    • High fat intake: increase energy
    • High GI carn intake: more likely to be stored as fat.
  48. Protective nutrients of obesity
    • Low GI: take longer to release glucose into the blood stream. this allows fat to be used as anenergy source instead of being stored as fat.
    • Fibre: assists with the feeling of being full. also brings down cholesterol levels
  49. Diabetes mellitus
    • Type 1: genetics
    • Type 2: overweight, age
    • Gestational: pregnancy
  50. Why is diabetes mellitus an NHPA?
    • increasing prevelance
    • YLL+YLD
  51. Costs of diabetes mellitus
    • Direct:
    • treatment
    • walfare
    • Indirect:
    • lost productivity
    • carers
    • loss of income
    • Intangible:
    • frustration
    • self-esteem
    • anxiety
  52. A promotional strategy for dibetes millitus
    • LIFE! taking action on diabetes
    • Victorian govenment funded strategy
    • aimed to reduce the incidence of type II diabetes amoung thoes at risk
    • aimed at victorians over the age of 50 and aboriginal and torres straight islanders of all ages
  53. Protective nurtients for type II diabetes
    • Low GI: decrease glucose in the blood
    • Fibre: make feel fuller. decreasing frequency of meals, decreases level of glucose in the blood.
    • water: prevents the sudden large increases of glucose in the blood after a meal or snack.
  54. Risk nutrients of type II diabetes
    • excess saturated fat: insulin has trouble getting through fat cells to be effective at delivering glucose to the muscles
    • High GI: increase likeihood of crabs being stored as fat
    • Alchohol: increases calories
  55. Risk factors of type II diabetes
    • Being overweight: insulin has issues penetrating fat cells, execess fat will make the issue worse
    • Inactive: increase obesity
    • Gentics: increases the likelihod
    • indgenous background: genetics of efficient stroage of energy as fat. combined with alchohol and faty foods
  56. Why is asthma a NHPA?
    • YLD
    • YLL: little
  57. Costs of asthma
    • Direct:
    • doctors
    • hospital
    • Indirect:
    • loss productivity
    • tax revenue
    • loss of income
    • carers
    • Intangible:
    • missing school
    • anxiety
    • frustration
  58. A promotional strategy for asthma
    asthma innovative management project
  59. Cancer control focus
    • prostate cancer
    • beast cancer in females
    • colorectal cancer
    • lung cancer
    • melanoma of the skin
    • non-melanoma of the skin
    • cancer of the cervix
    • non-hodgkins lymphoma
  60. Why is cancer control and NHPA?
    • preventable
    • greatly to YLL
    • contributes to YLD
    • lagest contributer to overal burden of disease
  61. Costs of cancer control
    • Direct:
    • treatment
    • health care
    • doctors
    • Indirect:
    • welfare
    • loss of productivity
    • loss of income
    • loss of time
    • Intangible:
    • pain and suffering
    • stresses
    • self-esteem
  62. A promotional strategy for cancer control
    • Sun smart
    • initative of the cancer council
    • funded byt he victorian health promotion foundation
    • aims to prevent the incidence of skin cancer though health promotion
    • encouraging people to make healthier choices with regars to sun protection.
    • incudes environment and attitudes
  63. Protective factors for colorectal cancer
    • Fibre: removes toxins which decreases risk of cancerous cells growing
    • Water:
    • Low GI: triggers the dealth of cancerous cells
    • Omega 3: decreases growth of cancerous cells in the colon.
  64. Risk nutients of colorectal cancer
    • Exess saturated and unsaturated fat consumption:
    • increases risk
    • specific fats trigger abnormal cells to develop in the colon
  65. Risk factors of colorectal cancer
    • Obesity: increaes risk of cancer
    • Genetics: increaes risk
    • Age: 1 in 7000 at 30, 1 in 15 at 70
    • Physical inactivity: increaes risk
  66. Glycaemic index
    • A system that rates the effect of certain foods on blood glucose levels
    • 70+ high
    • 55-69 medium
    • 55- low
  67. Macronutirents
    • carbohydrates
    • protein
    • lipids
    • water
  68. micronutients
    vitamins and minerals
  69. Six essential nutirents
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • protein
    • lipids
    • water
    • carbohydrates
  70. Water
    • important component of all chemical reactions that occur in the body.
    • acts as a form of transport within the body
    • controls body temperature
    • butter
    • bread
    • potato
  71. Trans fats
    • Increases LDL cholesterol production, this can contribute to CVD
    • Interfere with the stucture of the cells and effects fluid movement in and out
    • margarines
    • pies
    • pastries
    • cakes
  72. Saturated fats
    • Increaes LDL cholesterol production
    • found in foods of animal origin
    • full cream milk
    • cream
    • fried take-away foods
  73. Polyunsatyrated fats
    • Two main types are omega 3 and omega 6, they lower cholesterol in the blood stream and can reduce the risk of CVD
    • fish
    • nuts
    • seeds
  74. Monounsaturated fats
    • can help reduced LDL cholesterol
    • in moderation, can have positive health effects
    • olive oil
    • avocardo
    • nuts
  75. Lipids
    • Are essential parts of many body tissues, especially cell membranes
    • carries fat souble vitamins
    • satisfies hunger and slows down the emptying of the stomach
    • four types
    • 37kj of energy but is more difficult to break down
  76. Protein
    • Required for growth, repair and replacement of body tissue
    • last source of energy
    • 17kj of energy
    • meat
    • whole milk
    • egg
    • cheese
    • fish
    • poutry
  77. Carbohydrate
    • Primary source of energy
    • important ype is fibre which the body does not digest and assists with adding bulk and mositure to faeces (fruit, bran)
    • complex (potato, pasta, bread)
    • simple (lollies, fruit)
    • 16kj of energy but is the easiest to break down
  78. Fibre intake
    • adults (15+): 25-30g
    • children: 10g plus 1g for every year of age
  79. vitamin A
    • Fat souble
    • health skin, eyes
    • for night vision
    • the normal formation of hard tissues
    • egg yolk
    • liver
    • fish
    • carotine converts into vitamin a
    • carrots
    • mangoes
    • dark leafy vegetables
  80. Vitamin C
    • water souble
    • heals wounds
    • fights free radicals
    • protects vitamin A and E\builds collagen
    • increases iron absorption
    • berries
    • citrus fruits
    • dark green vegetables
  81. Folate (B9)
    • Water soluble
    • essential for the development of the spinal cord (reduces spinda bifida)
    • is used in the formation of healthy blood and may reduce damage to the arteries
    • fortified breakfast cereals
    • bread
    • liver
    • peanuts
  82. Vitamin B12
    • water souble
    • works with folate for the formation and maturation of red blood cells
    • assists with energy release
    • animal sources only
    • liver
    • meat
    • eggs
    • milk and milk products
  83. Vitamin D
    • Fat souble
    • strong bones and teeth as it assists with the absoption of calcium and phosphorus and aids in the despostions of these minerals on the bones
    • sunshine
    • tuna
    • sardines
    • cheese
    • eggs
  84. Fluoride
    • strengthens bone enamel against dental holes
    • protective role in prevention oseoprosis
    • flouridated water
    • tea
    • toothpaste
  85. Iodine
    • essential to metabolism as it is required for the formation of the hormone 'thyroxine' which plays a major role in regulation the bodies metabolism
    • iodised salt
    • seafood
    • vegetables
  86. Sodium
    • maintains water balance in the cell
    • required for the tranmission of nerve impulses and muscle contrations
    • table salts
    • take away food
    • meat
  87. Phosphorus
    • a structural part of bones a teeth
    • works with calcium to harden bones and teeth
    • required for the energy release of energy from the cell
    • dairy foods
    • meats
  88. Iron
    • formation of haemoglobin
    • works with protein to form haemoglobin
    • necessary for the formation of myoglobin which stores oxygen in muscle cells
    • meat
    • liver
    • kidney
    • green leafy vehetablles
    • wholegrain cereal
  89. Calcium
    • required for the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth
    • normal blood clotting
    • dairy products
    • fish
  90. The biomedical approach the health
    • Is based on cure and treatment of the individual, not prevention.
    • Focuses on the body
    • Know as the bandaid approach
  91. Strategies for the biomedical approach
    • Surgery
    • Pathology
    • Pharmaceuticals
    • X-rays
  92. Advantages and disadvantages of the biomedical approach
    • Advantages: diseases can be cured and treated, decreases mortality and morbidity
    • Disavantages: its expensive, can be seen as the quick fix to health issues, focus on the individuals only.
  93. Social model of health
    Aims to improve the health of individuals and communities as a whole
  94. Pricipals of the social model of health
    • Adresses the broader determinants of health
    • Reduces social inequality
    • Empoer individuals and the community
    • Acts to enable access to health care
    • Involves inter-sectorial collaboration
  95. Adresses the broader determinants
    Looks at the social, environmental and economic factors that infulence health status, not just th biomedical factors
  96. Reduces social inequality
    Reduces th inequalities that exist between people's ability to access health services and their health status
  97. Empower individuals and the community
    Involving people in the decistions made about their health and ensuring access to skills and resources that are required to influence their health
  98. Acts to enable access to health care
    health services should be affordale and available according to people's needs
  99. Involves inter-sectorial collaboration
    health requires co-ordinated action among different government departments and the private sector.
  100. Strategies for the social model of health
    • QUIT
    • go for your life campaign
    • sunsmart
  101. Advantages and Disadvantages for the social model of health
    • Advantages: cost effective, benefits individuals and the community, inclusive
    • Disadvantages: not all diseases can be prevented, effects ,may not be guanteed, benefits are not always obvious in the short term.
  102. Ottawa Charter
    • Based of the social model of health
    • Influences the way public health programs are planned and delivered.
  103. The five action areas of the ottawa charter
    • Bulid healthy public policy
    • Create supportive environments
    • Strengthen community action
    • Develop personal skills
    • Re-orient health services
  104. The mission of VicHealth
    • To build the capabilities of organisations, communities and individuals in ways that:
    • Change social, enconomic, cultural and physical environments to improve health for all Victorians
    • Strengthen the understanding and the skills of individuals in ways that support their efforts to achieve and maintain health.
  105. The values of VicHealth
    • Health is a fundamental human right
    • Everyone shares in the responsibility for promoting health
    • Everyone benfits from improved health outcomes
  106. The prorities of VicHealth
    • Reduce tobacco use
    • Increasing optimal nutrition
    • reduced harm from alcohol
    • Increasing physical activity
    • Increasing oportunities for social connection
    • Reducing race-based discrimination and promoting diversity
    • Preventing violence againt women by increasing participation in respectful relationships
    • Improving acess to economic resources
    • Reduce harm from UV
  107. Name some VicHealth funded programs
    • Food for all program
    • Walking school bus
    • QUIT
  108. What does the commonwealth government provide in terms of health?
    • NHPAs
    • allocation of funds to state and territory govenments
    • Medicare
    • PBS
    • Veteran's health
    • Worksafe
    • AIHW
  109. What does the state and territory governments provide in terms of health?
    • Hospitals
    • Aboriginal health services
    • Dental health services
    • Mental health services
    • Community centres
    • Ambulance
    • Immunisations
  110. What does the local governments provide in terms of health?
    • Public roads
    • Food safety
    • Pick up are removal of rubbish
    • Cultural and recreational facilities
    • District nursing
    • Local health care centres
    • Oversee palnning of land use
  111. What is private health insurance?
    Private health insurance is an additional health insurance that individuals can choose to pay for, on top of Medicare. It covers some services that Medicare does not and gives some people some flexibility with their choice of doctor and treatmentin a private hospital if requested.
  112. The advantages and disadvantages of private health insurance
    • Advantages:
    • Shorter waiting lists in hospitals
    • covers more services
    • covers more of the fee
    • can choose own doctor
    • is not compulsory
    • less cost to the community
    • government income can be spent elsewere
    • concourages preventative measures by offering rebates.
    • Disadvantages:
    • lower income earners connot pay fee
    • can be difficult to understand all the polices
    • doesnt cover all australians
    • does not promote equlity in access to health care
  113. The three government incentives for private health insurance
    • 30% rebate on premiums- the govenment will pay 30% of the cost of premiums
    • An extra 1% medicare levy on high income earners who do not have private health insurance
    • Lifetime health cover- lower premiums for people eho take out health cover early in life and maintain it throught their lifetime.
  114. What is Medicare?
    Medicare is Australians compulsory unviersal insurance scheme introduces in 1984. It's purpose is to make health care accessible to all Australians
  115. What does Medicare provide?
    • Free treatment as a public patient in a public hospital (but no choice of doctor)
    • Free (if bulk billed) or subsidised (85% of scheduled fee) treatments by doctors
    • x-rays
    • pathology tests
    • subsided prescriptions
    • a safety net
  116. What doesnt Medicare provide?
    • private patients costs
    • dental services
    • ambulance
    • home nursing
    • physiotherapy
    • occupational therapy
    • podiatry
    • spectals
    • cosmetic procedures
    • natural theripies
  117. Advantages and dusadvantages of Medicare
    • Advantages:
    • lower income earners do not pay levy
    • free hospital in public hospital
    • easy to understand
    • covers all australians
    • promotes equlity in access to health care
    • Disadvantages:
    • increased waiting lists
    • doesnt cover all services
    • only over 85% of fee
    • can't choose doctor
    • high cost to the community
    • doesnt encourage preventative measures
  118. The values the underpin Australians health care system
    • Continuous
    • Appropriate
    • Safe
    • Effecient
    • Capable
    • Accessible
    • Responsive
    • Effective
    • Sustainable
  119. The dietary guidelines for Austalians
    • Designed to provide general advice about healhty eating rather than specific measures like the Austalian guide to healthy eating
    • They are the principles which the nutrition education models put into practice
  120. The dietary guidelines for Australian Adults
    • Enjoy a wide variety of nutritous foods:
    • eat plenty for vegetables, legumes and fruits
    • Eat plenty of cereals (including breads, rice, pasta and noodles), preferably wholegrain
    • Include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives
    • Include milks, yoghurts, cheese and/or alternatives. Reduced fat varieties should be chosen where possible
    • Drink plenty of water
    • and take care to
    • Limit saturated fat and moderare total fat intake
    • Choose foods low in salt
    • Limit you alcohol intake if you choose to drink
    • Consume only morerade amounts of sugars and foods containing added sugars
    • Prevent weight gain: be physicaly active and eat according to your energy needs
    • Care for your food: prepare and store it safely
    • Encourage and support breastfeeding
  121. The dietary guidelines for children and adolescents in Australia
    • Encourage and support breatfeeding
    • Children and adolesecents need sufficient nutritious foods to grow and develop normally:
    • Growth should be checked regulary for young children
    • Physical activity is important for all children and adolensecents
    • Enjoy and whide varitety of nutritious food:
    • Children and adolesecents should be encouraged to
    • Eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits
    • Eat plenty of cerals (including breads, rice, pasta and noodles) preferably wholegrain
    • Include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives
    • Include milks, yoghurts, cheese and/pr alternatives. Reduced fat milks are not suitable for young children under two years of age, because of their high energy needs, but reduced fat varieties should be encouraged for older children and adolesecents.
    • Choose water as a drink. Alcohol is not recommended for children
    • and take care to
    • Limit staurated fat a moderate total fat intake. Low fat diets are not suitable for infants
    • Choose foods low in salt
    • Consme only moderate amounts of sugars and foods containing added sugars
    • Care for you child's food: prepare and store it safely
  122. Positves and negatives of the dietary gudlelines for Australians
    • Postives:
    • provide a basic overview
    • deals with food not nutirents
    • easy to understand
    • Negatives:
    • not specific
    • no information about number or size of servings
    • does not provide information about fat or salt in foods
  123. The Austalian guide to healthy eating
    • Is a food model that was released by the commonwealth government in 1998
    • There are two diets A and B
  124. Postives and negatives of the australia guide to healthy eating
    • Postives:
    • they are specific
    • cater for different stages of lifespan
    • importance of drinking water
    • includes some luxury foods
    • easy to read diagram
    • gives serving sizes
    • Negatives:
    • need to know about serving sizes
    • hard to categorise mixed foods
    • nothing about wholegrain choices
  125. Nutirent referance values
    • Gives a range for the amount of each nutirent that should be consumed by the genral healthy population
    • To be used by:
    • dieticians
    • doctors
    • industrial caterers
    • food manufactures
    • governments
  126. EAR (estimated average requirements)
    The level of the nutients that will meet th edaily requirements of half the individuals in a particular life stage or gender group
  127. RDI (recommended dietary intake)
    the average daily intake that will meet the requirements of about 97% of healthy individuals in a particular life stage or gender group
  128. UL (upper level of intake)
    The highest daily intake an individual of a gender group of life span stage can have of that nutirent with no ill effects.
  129. EER (estimated energy requirements)
    Average energy intake that is thought to maintain energy balance and therefor body weight
  130. Nutrition Australia
    Nutrition Australia is a non-profit, community based organisation that provides nutrition and promotes a healthy diet for all
  131. Some Nutrition Australia initiatives
    • nutrition information service
    • childcare advisory service
    • nutrition resource service
    • national nutrition week
    • healthy living pyramid
    • healthy eating schools
    • 'go for your life' canteens advisory service
  132. Hear foundation- tick of approval
    • That national heart foundation developed the tick program as a guide to help individuals make healthier food choices quickly and easily
    • Food companies apply the to use the tick trademark on their products if they meet specific nutritional requirements
  133. Legislation developed by food standards ausralia and new zealand
    All levels of govenment design legislation that is intended to protect and inform people
  134. Food labelling
    • nutrition information panel- energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars, sodium
    • percentage labelling
    • name and description of the food
    • food recall information
    • information for allergy sufferers
    • date marking
    • ingredient list
    • labels must tell the truth
    • food additives
    • legibility requirements
    • directions for use and storage
    • country of origin
  135. Health claims
    • Nutrient and health claims can be made by manufactures provided that they are true, can be proven are not designed to mislead consumers
    • Nurition content claims
    • General level health claims
    • High level claims
  136. Nutrition content claims
    • Claims about he amount of nutient.
    • Manufactures must have proof
  137. General level health claims
    The presence of a nutrient and its effect on health. Manufactures must use pre-approved statements, use scientific journal or guidelines to prove this
  138. High level claims
    • Reference to a disease, must be pre-approved by FSANZ
    • eg. 'reduces cholesterol'

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