midterm

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midterm
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2011-01-11 20:48:36
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  1. totalitarianism
    form of government that controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation
  2. representative democracy
    form of government in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies; may retain the monarchy in a ceremonial role.
  3. pluralism
    views politics as a conflict among interest groups. political decision making is chaacterized by bargaining and compromise.
  4. elite theory
    sociaety is ruled by a small number of people who exercise power to further their selfinterest
  5. liberalism
    beliefs that includes the advocac of positive government action to imporve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change
  6. political socialization
    process through which individuals learn a set of political attitudes and form opinions about social issues. the family and the educational system are two of the most important forces in the political socialization process.
  7. conservatism
    a set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change.
  8. constitutional convention
    delegates worked for 115 days, finally was approved by 39 delegates. established popular sovereignty and a republican government.
  9. virginia plan
    bicameral legislature with the lower chamber chosen by the people based on population and smaller upper chamber chosen by lower chamber. executive and judiciary.
  10. new jersey plan
    one state one vote, congress regulates trade and imposes taxes, several people would make up executive who would appoint supreme court, supremacy doctrine
  11. great compromise
    bicameral legislature: House of Representatives would be population+3/5 of slaves, Senate: 2 members from each state
  12. Amending the Constitution
    1. by a 2/3 vote in both chambers then by the legislatures of 3/4 of states or 2. by a national convention by congress at the request of 2/3 of states
  13. federalist #10
    addresses the question of how to guard against "factions," with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community. Madison argued that a strong, large republic would be a better guard against those dangers than smaller republics—for instance, the individual states.
  14. federalist #51
    each branch should be independent and have the same amount of power. He stresses that the government must be able to control the people, but also control itself. In most republic governments the legislative branch is the most powerful, so that’s why there is a Senate and House of Representatives.
  15. marbury v. madison
    judicial review-the power of the supreme court and other courts to delcare unconstitutional federal or state laws and other acts of government
  16. gibbons v. ogden
    marshall defined commerce as all business dealings including navigation and transportation of people, commerce clause is congress can regulate trade among the states and with other nations
  17. mcculloch v maryland
    no state coud use its taxing power to tax an arm of the antional government, necessary and proper clause grants congress the power to do whatever is necessary to execute its powers
  18. plessy v fergeson
    seperate but equal doctrine holds that seperate but equal facilities do not violate the equal protection clause
  19. Printz v US
    struck own provisions of the federal brady handgun violence prevention act that required state employees to check the background of potential handgun purchasers.
  20. regents of the university of california v. bakke
    bakke sued for reverse discrimination. race can be considered a factor among others in admissions decisions, but it cannot be the sole factor. affirmative action upheld as constitutional.
  21. roe v wade
    The Court decided that a right to privacy under the due process clause extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests for regulating abortions: protecting prenatal life and protecting the mother's health.
  22. Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services Inc.
    same sex sexual harrassment is illegal
  23. Lemon v. Kurtzman
    government aid to religious schools must be secular, all laws under the establishment clause are subject to the three part lemon test
  24. engel v vitale
    saying a prayer every morning in New York violated the establishment clause
  25. wallace v jaffree
    moment of silence was unconstitutional, later revised so a moment of silence is allowed as long as its not for praying
  26. miller v. california
    defines what material is obscene
  27. reserved powers
    powers that arent listed for the federal government are given to the state
  28. concurrent powers
    powers held jointly by the national and state governments (power to tax)
  29. enumerated powers
    powers specifically granted to the national government by the constitution. the first seventeen clauses of article 1, section 8, specify most of the enumerated powers.
  30. necessary and proper clause
    clause in article 1, section 8, that grants congress the power to do whatever is necessary.
  31. tenth amendment
    states the Constitution's principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states by the Constitution of the United States are reserved to the states or the people.
  32. eleventh amendment
    precludes lawsuits against state governments for violations of rights established by federal laws unless the states consent to be sued.
  33. federal mandates
    a requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with certain rules
  34. federalism
    system of the government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and states or provinces, a system in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments
  35. block grants
    federal programs that provide funds to state and local governments for general functional areas, such as criminal justice or mentalhealth programs.
  36. libel
    written defamation of a persons character reputation business or property rights
  37. slander
    public uttering of a false statement that harms the good reputation of another. the statement must be made to, or within the hearing of, persons other than the defamed party.
  38. voting rights act
    oulawed discriminatory voter registration tests and authorized federal registration of voters and federally administered voting procedures in any political subdivision or state that discriminated against a group.
  39. civil rights act
    forbade discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, and national origin.
  40. equal rights amendment
    equality should not be denied based on sex, introduced by national womens party, approved by congress but not by states.
  41. americans with disabilities act
    requires all public buildings and public services be accessible to persons with disabilities and employers must accommodate the needs of employees
  42. filibuster
    use of the senates tradition of unlimited debate as a delaying tactic to block a bill
  43. public opinion
    aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of the adult population
  44. public opinion polls
    method of systematically questioning a small selected sample of respondents who are deemed representative of the total population
  45. lobbying rules
  46. tactics used by interest groups
    lobbying, rathings game, building alliances, campaign assistance, generating public pressure, using constituents as lobbyists
  47. political machines
    A political machine is a disciplined political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses who receive rewards for their efforts
  48. split ticket voting
    refers to a ballot on which the voter has chosen candidates from different political parties when multiple offices are being decided by a single election.
  49. referendum
    an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval
  50. initiative
    procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment
  51. council of governments
    voluntary organization of countries and municipalities concerned with area wide problems
  52. difference between county and local governments
    county is not created at the behest of its inhabitants. the state sets up counties on its own initiative to serve as political extensions of the state government
  53. tipping
    occus when a group that is becoming more numerous over time grows large enough to change the political balance in a district, state, or country
  54. realignment
    process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance, producing a longterm change in the political landscape
  55. national convention
    meeting held every four years by each major party to select presidential and vp candidates, to write a platform, choose a national committee, and to conduct party business

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