chapter 10

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cassidy
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59265
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chapter 10
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2011-01-11 19:46:08
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  1. each organism has a unique combination of characteristics incoded in moclecules of
    dna
  2. the primary funciton of dna is to
    store and transmit genetic information
  3. molecuels of dna are composed of long chains of
    nucleotides
  4. whihc of the follwing are not part of a molecuel of dna
    ribose
  5. a nucleotide consists of
    • a sugar
    • phosphate group and
    • nitrogenous base
  6. the part of the molecue ofor which deoxyribonucleic acid is named is the
    sugar
  7. purines and pyrimidines are
    bases found in nucleotides
  8. the scienists credited with establishing the structure of dna are
    watson and crick
  9. x-ray diffraction photographs by wilkins and ranklin suggested that
    dna molecuesl are arranged as a tightly coiled helix
  10. watson and crick built models that demonstrated that
    ddna is made of two chains in a double helix
  11. chargaff's rules the base-pairing rules state that in dna
    amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine and the amount of guanin equals the amount of cytosine
  12. the base pairing rules state that the follwowing are base pairs in dna
    • adenine-thymine
    • guanine-cytosine
  13. the addiction of nucleotides to form a complemenatary strand of dna
    is catalyzed by dna polymerase
  14. the enzymes responsible for adding nucleotides to the exposed dna template bases are
    dna plymerases
  15. the funcitno of trna is to
    transfer amino acids to ribosomes
  16. which of the following types of rna carries instructions for making proteins
    mRNA
  17. DNA differs from DNA in that RNA
    • is somtimes single stranded
    • contains a d ifferent sugar molecule
    • contains the nigrogenous base uracil
  18. rna is chemically similar to DNA except that its ssugars have an additional oxygen at om and athe base thymine is replaced by a structurally similar base called
    uracil
  19. RNA molecules adine is scomplementary to
    uracil
  20. during translation a ribosmome binds to
    mRNA
  21. IN ORDER FOR PROTEIN SYNTEHSIS TO OCCUR Mrna MUST MIGRATE TO THE
    RIBOSOMES
  22. during transcrioption
    rna is produced
  23. transcription proceds when RNA polymerase
    binds to a promoter on a strand of DNA
  24. transcriopiton is the pr ocess by which genetic information enoded in dna is transfered to
    rna molecule
  25. each nucleotide triplet in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid is called
    codon
  26. the human genome contains
    • 30,000 genes
    • 23 chromosmoes
    • 3.2 billion base pairs
  27. during translation the amino acid detaches from the transfer rna molecuel and attaches to the end ofa growing protein chain when
    the transfer RNA anticodon is paired up with the messenger RNA codon
  28. the fransfer of genetic material form one cell to another which frederick griffith studied is called
    fransformation
  29. oswald avery showed that
    cells missing protin and rna were able to transform r cells into s cells and kill mice but cells missing dna could not
  30. an error in dna replciation can cause
    • mutations
    • cancer
    • genetic variation
  31. hershey and chase concluded aht ______is the hereditary material in viruses
    dna
  32. the name of hte five carobn sugar that makes up a aprt of the backbone of molecueles of dna is the
    deoxiribose
  33. watson and crick determined that dna molecuels have the shape of a doubler
    helix
  34. due to the stsrict paring of nitrogenous bse pairs in DNA molecuels, the two strands are said to be __- to each other
    complementary
  35. according to base-pairing ruels for DNA adine pairs wiht___and guanine pairs iwth ___-
    thyamine, cytosine
  36. the enzyme that is responsible for replicating moleuces of dna by attaching c omplementary bases in the correct sequence is teh
    dna polymerase
  37. nzymes called helicawes are respsonsible for unwinding the dna double helix by breaking the ___bonds that hold hte comoplemntary strands together
    hydrogen
  38. he process by which dna copies iteslef is called....
    dna replication
  39. the nitrogenous bse that is found only in rna is called?
    uracil
  40. the enzyme responsible for transcribing rna is called
    rna plymerase
  41. the form of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information form the dna to the ribosomes is
    messenger rna
  42. a....is a sequence of dna at the beginning of a gene that singnals rna polymerase to begin transcription
    prometer
  43. messenger rna is produced during hte process of
    transcription
  44. of tehe 64 codons of mrna 61 code for___three are ___ singansl and one is a ___signal
    • amino acid
    • stop[
    • start
  45. nucleotide sequences of trna that are complemetnary to codons on mrna are called
    anti codons
  46. a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for aspecific amino acid in the syntehsis of protein is calld an ...
    codon
  47. the informaiton containd in a molecuel of messenger rna is used to make protin during hte pricess of
    translation
  48. during translation amino acids are borught to the ribosomesm by molcuesl of
    transfer rna

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