Bio Mid term

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Bio Mid term
2011-01-13 23:07:37

vocab and notes!!
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  1. What is autotroph?
    Organisms that can make their own food.
  2. What is heterotroph?
    Animals that can't use suns direct energy
  3. What is adenosine triphophate? (ATP)
    A chemical compound that living things use to store energy Plants and some other types of organisms are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.
  4. What is photosynthesis?
    Is when plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high energy carbohydrates
  5. What is pigments?
    Are plants that gather the sun's energy with light absorbing molecules
  6. What is chlorophyll?
    The plants' pigments
  7. The experiments performed by wan helmont, Priestley, ingenhousz, and other scientits reveal that in the presence of light, plants transform carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and releass oxygen.
  8. Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high energy sugars.
  9. What is thylakoid?
    Is saclike photosynthetic membranes
  10. What is the stroma?
    It's the region outside the thylakoid membranes
  11. What is NADP+?
    It's a compound carrier molecule
  12. What are light dependant reactions?
    Is a process in which energy from light to make ATP and NADPH
  13. What is ATP synthase?
    Large protein that uses energy from h+ ions to bind ADP and a phospate group together to produce ATP
  14. What is the calvin cycle?
    It's the process in which the plant uses the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high energy compounds that can be stored for a long time
  15. The light dependant reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP into energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
  16. The calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light dependant reactions to produce high energy sugars.
  17. What is a calorie?
    It's the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water.
  18. What is glycolsis?
    It's the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half making two molecules of pyruvic acid a 3 carbon compound
  19. What is cellular respiration?
    It's the process the releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
  20. What is NAD?
    It's an electron carrier involved in glycolysis
  21. What is Fermentation?
    It's a process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
  22. What is anaerobic?
    It's a process that doesn't require oxygen
  23. The two main types of fermentation are alcholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
  24. What is krebs cycle?
    It's the second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extractint reactions
  25. What is the electron transport chain?
    It's a series of proteins in which the high energy electrons from the krebs cycle are used to convert ADP to ATP
  26. During the krebs cycle pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxidenin anweries or Energy extracting reactions
  27. What is an atom?
    It's a basic unit of matter
  28. What is the nucleus?
    It's the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons
  29. What is an electron?
    It's a negitively charged particle
  30. What is an isotope?
    It's atom of element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element
  31. What is a compound?
    It's a stubstance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
  32. What is an ionic bond?
    A bond is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
  33. What is an ion?
    It's an atom that has positive or negitive charge
  34. What is a covalent bond?
    It's a bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
  35. What is a molecule?
    It's the smallest unit of most compounds
  36. What are van der waals forces?
    They're a slight attraction the develops between opositely charged regions of nearby molecules
  37. The subatomic particles that make up atoms are portons, neutrons, and electrons
  38. The main types of chemical bonds are ionic and covalent bonds
  39. What is cohension?
    It's atrraction Between molecules of the same substance
  40. What is adhension?
    It's attraction between molecules of different substances
  41. What is a mixture?
    It's material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
  42. What is a solution?
    It's a mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substance are evenly distributed
  43. What is solute?
    It's substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
  44. What is solvent?
    It's a substance in which solute is dissolved to form a solution
  45. What is suspension?
    It's a mixture of water and nondissolved materials
  46. What is pH scale?
    It's a mesurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
  47. What is acid?
    It's a compound that forms hydrogen ions
  48. What is a base?
    It's a compound that produces hydroxide ions
  49. What is a bufffer?
    It's weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or basesnto help prevent sharp sudden chanfes in pH
  50. The characteristics of ATP make it an exceptionally useful molecule that is used by all types of cells as their basic energy source
  51. In addition to water and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll, a molecule in chloroplasts.
  52. Becuase isotopes have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties
  53. What does monomer mean?
    It's a small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
  54. What does polymer mean?
    It's a large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
  55. What does carbohydrate mean?
    It's a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
  56. What is a lipid?
    It's a macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms
  57. What is nucleic acid?
    It's a macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
  58. What is a nucleotide?
    It's a monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  59. What is ribonucleic acid (RNA)?
    It's a single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribosomes
  60. What is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?
    It's a nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
  61. What is a protein?
    It's a macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  62. What is an amino acid?
    It's a compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group
  63. Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
  64. Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes
  65. Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
  66. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information
  67. Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Some are used to form bones and muscles. Others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease
  68. What is a chemical reaction?
    It's a process that changes on set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
  69. What is a reactant?
    It's an element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
  70. What is a product?
    It's an element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
  71. What is activation energy?
    It's energy needed to get a reaction started
  72. What is catalyst?
    It's a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
  73. What is an enzyme?
    It's a protein that acts as a biological catalyst
  74. What is substrate?
    It's a reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
  75. Chemical reactions always involve the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products
  76. Chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously. Chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur with out a source of energy
  77. Cells use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
  78. What is science?
    organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world; also, the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process
  79. What is observation?
    use of one or more of the senses-sight, hearing, touch,smell, and sometimes taste-to gather information
  80. What is data?
    evidence; information gathered from obervations
  81. What is interference?
    logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
  82. What is a hypothesis?
    possible explanation for a set of observation or possible answer to a scientific question
  83. the goal of science is to investigate and understand nature, to explain event in nature, and to use those explanations to make useful prediction
  84. What is a spontaneous generations?
    hypothesis stating that life could arise from nonliving matter
  85. What is a controlled experiment?
    a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same
  86. What is a manipulated variable?
    factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as independent variable
  87. What is a responding variable?
    factor in and experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable
  88. What is a theory?
    well-tested explanation that unifies a road rang of observations
  89. Whenever, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables should be kept unchanged, or controlled
  90. In science, the word theory applies to a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
  91. What is biology?
    I's science that seeks to understand the living world
  92. what is a cell?
    It's a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from it's surroundings
  93. What is sexual reproduction?
    It's a process by which two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell for a new organism
  94. What is asexual reproduction?
    it's a process by which a single parent reproduced by itsself
  95. What is metabolism?
    It's a set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
  96. What is homeostasis?
    It's a process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal enviroment
  97. What is evolve?
    It means to change over time
  98. Living things share several characteristics. These characteristics include the following, Are made up of units called cells, reproduce, are based on a universal genetic code, grows and develops, obtain and use materials and energy, respond to their environment, maintain and stable internal environment
  99. The many level at which life can be studied include molecules, cells, organisms, populations of a single organism, communities of population living in the same area, and the biosphere
  100. What is a cell?
    collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell form its surroundings:basic unit of all forms of life.
  101. What is a cell theory?
    idea that all living thing are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.
  102. what is a cell membrane?
    thin, flexible barrier around a cell:regulates what enters a leaves the cell.
  103. what is cell wall?
    strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae , and some bacteria.
  104. what is a nucleus?
    It's a small dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of ribosomes begins
  105. what is cytoplasm?
    It's a material inside the cell membrane
  106. what is a prokaryote?
    It's a single-celled microorganism that lacks a nucleus
  107. what is a eukaryote?
    It's an organism whose cells contain nuclei
  108. what is a organelle?
    It's a specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryote cell
  109. The cell theory states that the following: all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structures and functions in living things, new cells are produced from exiting cells
  110. Biologists divide cells into two categories: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The cells of eukaryotes have a nucleus, but the cells of prokaryotes do not
  111. What is chromatin?
    It's granular material visible within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from generation of cells to the next
  112. What is a chromosome?
    It's a threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
  113. What is a nucleolous?
    It's a small dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of ribosomes beings
  114. What is a nuclear envelope?
    It's a double membrane layer that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
  115. What is a cytoskeleton?
    It's a network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
  116. What is a microtubule?
    It's a hollow tube of protein that maintains cell shape and can also serve as a track along which organelles are moved
  117. What is a microfilament?
    It's a long thin fiber that functions in the movement and support of the cell
  118. What is a ribosome?
    It's a small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled
  119. What is a endoplasmic reticulum?
    It's a international membrane system in cells in which components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
  120. What is golgi apparatus?
    It's a stack of membrane in the cell in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins
  121. What is a lysosome?
    It's a cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
  122. What is a vacuole?
    It's a cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
  123. What is a chloroplast?
    It's and organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that uses energy from sun light to make energy-rich food molecules by photosynthesis
  124. What is a mitochondrion?
    It's a cell organelle that releases energy food stored molecules
  125. The main functions of the cell wall is to provide supports and protection for the cell
  126. What is a lipid bilayer?
    A double layered sheet that forms the core of nearby all cell membranes
  127. What is concentration?
    It's the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
  128. What is selective permeability?
    It's property of biological membranes that allows only certain substances to pass through them
  129. What is osmosis?
    It's the diffusion of water through a selective permeable membrane
  130. What is active transport?
    It's and energy required process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
  131. What is phagocytosis?
    It's a process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
  132. What is diffusion?
    it's a process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
  133. What is facilitated diffusion?
    It's the movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
  134. What is endocytosis?
    It's a process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
  135. What is exocytosis?
    It's a process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
  136. The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protections and support
  137. Diffusion causes many substances to move across a cell membrane but does not require the cell to use energy
  138. Osmosis is the diffusion through a selective permeable membrane
  139. What is cell specialization?
    It separates roles for each type of cell in multicellular organisms
  140. What is tissue?
    It's a group of similar cells that perform a particular function
  141. What is and organ?
    It's a groups of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
  142. What is and organ system?
    It's a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
  143. Cells in multicellular organisms are specialized to perform particular functions within the organism
  144. The levels of organization in a multicellular organism are individual cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
  145. What is cell division?
    It's a process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells
  146. The larger a cell becomes the more demands the cell places on its DNA and the more trouble the cell has moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane
  147. What is chromatid?
    It's one of two identical sister parts of a duplicated chromosome
  148. What is a centromere?
    It's an area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
  149. What is interphase?
    It's a period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
  150. What is the cell cycle?
    It's a series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
  151. What is mitosis?
    It's a part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
  152. What is prophase?
    It's the first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
  153. What is a centriole?
    It's one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
  154. what is a spindle?
    It's a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis
  155. What is metaphase?
    It's the second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
  156. What is anaphase?
    It's the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
  157. What is telophase?
    It's the fourth and final phase of mitosis, in which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
  158. What is cytokinesis?
    It's division of the cytoplasm during cell division
  159. During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to for two daughter cells, each of which then begins the cycle again
  160. Biologists divide the events of mitosis into four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
  161. What is cyclin?
    It's one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
  162. What is cancer?
    It's a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lost the ability to control growth
  163. Cyclins regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
  164. Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells. As a result, they form masses of cells called tumors that can damage the surrounding tissues
  165. What is genetics?
    It's the scientific study of hereditary
  166. What is true-breeding?
    It's a term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
  167. What is a trait?
    It's a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
  168. What is a hybrid?
    It's offspring crossed between parents with different traits
  169. What is a gene?
    It's a sequence showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome
  170. What is a allele?
    It's one of a number of different forms of a gene
  171. What is segregation?
    It's separation of alleles during gamete formation
  172. What is a gamete?
    It's a specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
  173. The principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
  174. When each F1 plant flowers, the two alleles are segregated from each other so that each gamete carries only a single copy of each gene. Therefore, each F1 plant produced two types of gametes those with the allele for tallness and those with the allele for shortness
  175. What is probability?
    It's likelihood that a particular event will occur
  176. What is a punnett square?
    It's a diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
  177. What is homozygous?
    It's a term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding from the opposite sex parent
  178. What is heterozygous?
    It's a term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
  179. What is phenotype?
    It's physical characteristics of an organism
  180. What is genotype?
    It's genetic make up of an organism
  181. The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses
  182. What is independent assortment?
    It's independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
  183. What is incomplete dominance?
    It's a situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
  184. What is codominance?
    It's a situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
  185. What is multiple alleles?
    It's three or more alleles for the same gene
  186. What is polygenic traits?
    It's a trait controlled by two or more genes
  187. The principle of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
  188. Some alleles are neither dominant or recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles, or multiple genes
  189. What is homologous?
    It's a term used to refer chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite sex parent
  190. What is diploid?
    It's a term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
  191. What is haploid?
    It's a term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
  192. What is meiosis?
    It's a process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in diploid cells
  193. What is tetrad?
    It's a structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
  194. What is crossing over?
    It's a process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
  195. Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
  196. Mitosis results in the production of two genetically identical cells, whereas meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells
  197. What is transformation?
    It's a process in which one stain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strand of bacteria
  198. What is bacteriophage?
    It's a virus that infects bacteria
  199. What is a nucleotide?
    It's a monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
  200. What is base pairing?
    It's a principle that bonds in DNA can only form between adenine and thymine and between cytosine and guanine
  201. Avery and other scientists discovered that DNA is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next
  202. Hershey and Chase concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA not protein
  203. Watson and Crick's model of DNA was a double helix, in which two strands were wound around each other
  204. What is chromatin?
    It's a granular material visible within the nucleus
  205. What is histone?
    It's globular protein molecule around which DNA in tightly coiled in chromatin
  206. What is replication?
    It's a copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
  207. What is DNA polymerase?
    It's an enzyme that proofreads new DNA stands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA
  208. During DNA replication, the DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produced two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing, Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand
  209. What is messenger RNA?
    It's a RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
  210. What is ribosomal RNA?
    It's a type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
  211. What is transfer RNA?
    It's a type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
  212. What is transcription?
    It's a procedd in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
  213. What is RNA polymerase?
    It's an enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
  214. What is a poromoter?
    It's a region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where it binds to make RNA
  215. What is intron?
    It's intervening sequence of DNA
  216. What is exon?
    It's expressed sequence of DNA
  217. What is codon?
    It's a three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
  218. What is translation?
    It's decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
  219. What is anticodon?
    It's a group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
  220. There are three main types of RNA: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA
  221. During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands. RNA polymerase then uses one strand as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA
  222. During translation, the cell uses information from the messenger RNA to produce proteins.
  223. What is a mutation?
    It's a change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
  224. What is point mutation?
    It's a mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
  225. What is frameshift mutation?
    It's mutation that shifts the reading frame genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
  226. Gene mutations result from changes in a single gene. Chromosomal mutations involve changes in whole chromosomes
  227. What is selective breeding?
    It's a method of improving a species by allowing only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
  228. What is hybridization?
    It's a breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
  229. What is inbreeding?
    It's continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
  230. What is polyploid?
    It's having many sets of chromosomes
  231. Humans use selective breeding to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms
  232. Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by inducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of genetic variablilty
  233. What is genetic engineering?
    It's a process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
  234. What is a restriction enzyme?
    It's an enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotide
  235. What is gel electrophoresis?
    It's a procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
  236. What is recombinant DNA?
    It's DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
  237. What is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
    It's technique that allows molecular biologists to make copies of a particular gene
  238. Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to study the change DNA molecules. Different techniques are used to extract DNA from cells, to cut DNA into smaller pieces, to identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and to make unlimited copies of DNA
  239. What is karyotype?
    It's a set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
  240. What is sex chromosome?
    It's one of two chromosomes that determine an individual's sex
  241. What is autosome?
    It's an autosome chromosome
  242. What is pedigree?
    It's a chart that shows the relationships within a family
  243. What is polygenic?
    It's a trait controlled by two ir more genes
  244. All egg cells carry a single X chromosome. However, half of all sperm cells carry an X chromosome and half carry a Y chromosome. This ensures that just about half of the zygotes will be 46XX and half will be 46XY
  245. In both cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease, a small change in the DNA of a single gene affects the structure of a protein, causing a serious genetic disorder
  246. What is sex-linked gene?
    It's a gene located on the X or Y chromosome
  247. What is nondisjunction?
    It's and error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
  248. Males have just one X chromosome. Thus, all X-linked alleles are expressed in males, even if they are recessive
  249. If nondisjunction occurs, abnormal numbers of chromosomes may find their way into gametes, and a disorder of chromosome numbers may result