Card Set Information
CBC Urinary CH6
CBC Radiology Pathology II
The main function of the kidney is to filter _______ from the blood and ____ water and nutrients, and _____ excess substances.
waste products, reabsorb, secrete
The formation of urine begins in the?
Where is virtually all nutrients reabsorbed into the blood capillaries?
proximal convoluted tubule
Three major parts of the loop of Henle?
descending limb, loop, ascending limb
The kidney helps to maintain ____ balance and ______ balance of blood and body fluids.
electrolyte, acid base
As urine passes from the collecting tubules it enters the?
From the major calyces, urine passes into the?
To urinate or void is also called?
What prevents urine from backflowing into the ureter?
Involuntary urination is called?
When one kidney must perform the function of both kidneys, it is called?
What appears as a round or oval density surrounded by a thin radiolucent halo that represents the wall of a prolapsed ureter (when filled with contrast)?
The term for more than one ureter or renal pelvis is?
Ultrasound demonstrates the lower poles of the kidney fused resulting in a _________.
Four normal points of narrowing that are common sites of obstruction in the urinary system
uretopelvic junction, uretovessicle junction, bladder neck, urethral meatus
In chronic ________, the kidneys are bilaterally smaller with normal contours.
Noncontrast helical CT is the safest method to demonstrate?
The renal calculus that fills the renal calyces and pelvis is called a ______ calculus.
When blockage in the ureter occurs above the bladder, it may cause a?
The most common unifocal mass of the kidney is a ?
The triad of symptoms in renal carcinoma are?
hematuria, flank pain, possible palpable mass
A multilobulated contour due to multiple cysts in the parenchyma is what disease?
A plain radiograph showing punctate, coarse, or linear calcifications, usually on the periphery of the bladder is suggestive of?
A lack of visualization of the renal vein on CT is indicative of?
renal vein thrombosis
Area of the kidney that the blood vessels, renal pelvis, and nerves enter and exit the kidney?
Muscular structure on the posterior aspect of the bladder?
What is the cup-shapped structure on top of a nephron that surrounds the glomerulus?
Stores urine before entrance into the renal pelvis?
Process of urination?
Urine passes into the papillae through this structure?
a third kidney
Cystic dilation of the distal ureter?
Tuft of capillaries with very thin walls and a large surface area?
Uncontrolled response of voiding?
Dilation of the renal pelvicalyceal area?
Dilation of a ureter?
Fluid-filled unilocular mass?
Inflammation of the bladder?
Inflammatory process involving the tufts of the capillaries that filter the blood?
Lesion rising from embryonic renal tissue most commonly found in infants and during childhood?
Most common renal neoplasm, also known as hypernephroma?
Pyogenic bacteria causing inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis?
Chronic renal failure results in a condition called ______ which is an accumulation of excessive blood levels of urea and creatine.
80% of _______ contain enough calcium to be radiopaque.
Destructive process involving the medullary papillae and the terminal renal pyramids?
Extension of a clot from the IVC?
renal vein thrombosis
Finger like projections into the lumen of the bladder?
Lower poles of the left and right kidneys are fused?
Multiple cysts of varying size causing progressive renal impairment?
What condition results in a condition called uremia?
chronic renal failure
Thin transverse membrane in the urethra preventing micturation?
posterior urethral valves
A miniature replica of a normal kidney with good function is a?
A kidney that is not located in the retroperitoneal space adjacent to the psoas muscle is considered an?
The modality to demonstrate the fused inferior poles of the kidneys without radiation exposure is?
The _____ is a thin membrane that prevents normal urine flow.
posterior uretral valve
A _______ is a lower-pole parenchymal fusion
A dilation of the ureter ar the ureterovesical junction is a ?
Small granulomas scattered in the cortices of the kidney occurs in the hematogenous spread of?
Gas-forming bacteria on plain images appearing as a lucent ring outlining all or part of the bladder are suggestive of?
Hydronephrosis is commonly caused by?
a kidney stone
The modality of choice to differentiate fluid-filled simple cysts from a solid mass is?
The Swiss cheese pattern in the kidney is caused by?
innumerable lucent cysts
Polypoid defects and bladder wall thickening are indicative of?
A highly malignant renal tumor most common in infancy and childhood is a ?
The imaging criteria for pyelography are the same as for an abdominal radiograph, but must include the area from the ______ to include the _______.
diaphragm, inferior bladder
A bacterial inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis is termed?
The medical term used to describe dilated calyces and renal pelvis is?
What is the name of the most common fusion anomaly of the kidneys?
What is the name for a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near the bladder?
Name of the first portion of the kidney to become visible after injection of a contrast agent.
What term is used to describe a kidney not in the normal area of the abdomen?
What disorder is caused by an antigen antibody reaction that occurs after a streptococcyl infection of the upper respiratory tract or middle ear?
glomerulonephritis: becomes very permeable allowing albumin and RBCs to leak into urine
The medical term for painful urination is?
What is suppurative inflammation of the kideny and renal pelvis caused by bacteria from blood, lymph system or most often from stagnating urine due to obstruction?
pyelonephritis: effects interstital tissue between tubules. Usually originates in bladder
Symptoms of pyelonephritis?
high fever, chills, sudden back pain, dysuria, pyuria
gas forming bacteria occuring most commonly in diabetic pt's. Causes acute necrosis of entire kidney
The kidneys sit between?
The right kidney is _____ and _____ in relationship to the longer left kidney.
lower and more anterior
Nephrons filter approx _____ liters of water out of glomerular blood each day, while excreting __ liters in urine.
190 liters, excrete 1-2 liters into urine
The kidney helps maintain _______, controls the concentration and volume of _____, and excretes various amounts of ________.
homeostasis, blood, selected wastes
Path of blood into kidney to form urine?
renal artery - interlobar artery - arcurate artery - interlobular artery - afferent arterioles - glomerulus
Blood pressure is higher in the _____ than the _____ which allows water and solutes to be filtered into the ______ in which neither protein or RBCs should pass.
glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, capsule
Anomalies of size and number?
renal agenesis, supernumerary kidney, hypoplastic kidney, compensatory hypertrophy
An ectopic kidney developes _______ where as nephroptosis develpoes _______.
out of place (will have smaller ureter), developes in the normal places but then falls out of place (has normal length ureter).
Anomalies of rotation, position, and fusion?
malrotation, ectopic kideny, horseshoe kidney, crossed kidney, complete fusion.
In horseshoe kidney the ureters exit _______.
anteriorly over the lower poles
Anomalies of the renal pelvis, ureter, and urethera?
Cystitis is more common in?
Cystitis is caused by?
E. Coli (Escherichia Coli)
How are kidney stones formed?
Precipitation of urine products (calcium salts) out of urine solution
_____ % of stones are _______ due to calcium content.
What type of stone is composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate?
PUL (percutanous ultrasonic lithotripsy) is the best treatment for?
Renal cysts are common in the _____ of the kidney.
Modality of choice for renal cyst visualization?
Pathology? Many tiny cysts at birth gradually enlarge into age 30's, compress and destroy normal tissue with end stage renal disease by age 40. (Transplant canidate)
polycystic kidney disease
Painless hematuria is a chief complaint of what pathology?
renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
Common metastasis sites (secondary) by time of diagnosis of hypernephroma?
lungs, liver, bone, brain
5yr survival rate for PT's with hypernephroma (renal cell carcinoma)?
Wilm's tumor (nephroblastoma) is clinically apparent between the ages of ____ and ____.
2-4 years old
5yr survival rate for PT's who have received treatment for Wilm's tumor (nephroblastoma)?
Second most common cancer of the kidney in children?`
neuroblastoma: most often originates in the adrenal glands which displaces kidney downward.
Cause of carcinoma of the bladder is related to?
smoking, excessive coffe drinking and industrial chemicals
Which cancer of the urinary system has the best prognosis?
What is ARF?
acute renal failure
What pathology is the accumulation of notrogen containing wastes in the blood that causes characteristic odor of ammonia on the breath?
ARF, acute renal failure
Modality of choice for people suspected of renal failure?
ultrasound. You don't push contrast into patients in renal failure unless you want to kill them
Degree of obliquity for cystography?
waiting for answer
What is a RUG?
retrograde urethrogram, for males
Retrograde pyelography. Where is the catheter placed?
directly into the ureters
Percutaneous pyelography. What is it?
posterolateral insertion of needle or catheter into renal pelvis. Can be left in for drainage.
Placement of catheter in renal angiography?
inserts into femoral artery, inject into or above renal artery.
Normal creatine values?
Normal BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
A coral looking mass is a?