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3 types of base pair mutations during protein synthesis
what kind of nucleid acid can be found in viruses
RNA or DNA
an RNA virus that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase which uses the RNA as template for DNA synthesis
whats prophage (provirus)
virus that has integrated its DNA into the host cell's DNA
lytic and lysogenic cycle?
- bacteriophage infection results in either lytic or lysogenic cycle
- lytic: the production of new progeny that causes the cell to burst.
- lysogenic: incorporation of viral DNA into the bacterial DNA where it remains inactive. may progress to lytic cycle
3 ways bacteria can increase genetic variability
- 1. transformation- incorporation of foreign chromosome fragments
- 2.conjugation- transfer of genetic material btwn 2 bact
- 3.transduction- virus carries DNA btwn 2 bact
gene that regulates (bacterial) transcription
requires the presence of an inducer for transcription to occur
constant state of transcription unless a corepressor is present to stop it
model of punctuated equilibrium
evolution is characterized by long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid evolutionary changes
the difference between homologous and analogous structures
homologous structure- similar structure in origin, but not function
analogous structure - similar i function but not in origin
Hardy Weinberg equation? what each represent?
- p2- freq of homozygous dominants
- 2pq - freq of heterozygotes
- q2-freq of homozygous recessives
5 necessary conditions for Hardy Weinberg equation
- 1.no mutation affect the gene pool
- 2.large population
- 3.genes in population are equally successful at reproducing
- 4.mating occurs at random
- 5.the migration or individuals in or out of population
genetic drift vs. genetic flow?
drift-change in the gene pool due to chance.
flow-changing of the gene pool due to migration of individuals
function of surfactant?
reduces surface tension on alveoli and facilitate gas exchange
maximum amount of air that can be inhaled
total lung capacity?
vital capacity + residual volume
difference btwn prokaryote and eukaryote
eukaryote has membrane bound organelles, prokaryote does not
a smaller extrachromosomal ring of dna sometimes found in bact. it replicates independent of bact. chromosome.
typical bact. cell has?
cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, flagella, and dna
where in bact. does respiration occur?
function of transport protein?
helps polar molecules and certain ions across cell membrane
function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
site of lipid synthesis, poison detox and protein transport
function of peroxisome
make hydrogen peroxide and digests fats into smaller molecules
movement of dissolved particle down concentration gradient with help of carrier molecules
4 basic tissues in the body?
muscle, nerve, epithelial and connective tissues
difference btwn apoenzyme and holoenzyme?
apoenzymes does not have its cofactor, holoenzyme does
tightly bound cofactor
(t/f) all enzyme in body are proteins
false, ribozymes are RNA enzymes
enzyme with 2 or more active sites. it oscillates btwn active and inactive configurations